An overview of the pesticides’ impacts on fishes and humans

Eric Amenyogbe, Jian-sheng Huang, Gang Chen, Zhongliang Wang

Abstract

Agrochemicals, also known as pesticides include nematicides, molluscicides, rodenticides, herbicides, fungicides and insecticides, can control pests, weeds, fungi, rodents, etc. The accumulation of pesticides in the food chain and water has harmful effects on humans and animals.  Despite the advantages provided by pesticides, aquatic organisms and human health are affected as the results of continuous usage of pesticides and issues of building up of chemical substances in aquatic organisms, such as fish. Pesticides must be lethal to the targeted species without any effect on non-targeted ones. Pesticides have harmful effects on the nervous system. Other pesticides are known to be carcinogenic substances. This review discussed the effects of pesticides on the immune system, protein, chromosomes, behavior, enzymes, growth, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and changes in blood biochemical parameters of fish and humans and suggested some possible ways of mitigating such effects.

Keywords

Pesticides, Immune system, Genotoxicity, Bioaccumulation.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdullah N.Z., Ishaka A., Samsuddin N., Mohd Rus R., Mohamed A.H. (2011). Chronic organophosphate pesticide exposure and coronary artery disease: finding a bridge. IIUM Research, Invention and Innovation Exhibition, 9-10 February 2011, Cultural Activity Centre (CAC) and KAED Gallery IIUM, 223.

Aktar W., Sengupta D., Chowdhury A. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2(1): 1-12.

Al-Mamun A. (2017). Pesticide degradations, residues, and environmental concerns. In: Khan M., Rahman M. (Eds.). Pesticide Residue in Foods. Springer International Publishing. pp: 87-102.

Alrumman S.A., El-kott A.F., Kehsk M.A. (2016). Water pollution: Source and treatment. American Journal of Environmental Engineering, 6(3): 88-98.

Andersen H.R., Wohlfahrt-Veje C., Dalgård C., Christiansen L., Main K.M., Nellemann C., Murata K., Jensen T.K., Skakkebaek N.K., Grandjean P. (2012). Paraoxonase 1 polymorphism and prenatal pesticide exposure associated with adverse cardiovascular risk profiles at school age. PLoS One, 7: e36830.

Anita B., Yadav A.S., Cheema N. (2016). Genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Cirrhinus mrigala using micronucleus assay. Advances in Biology, 1-6.

Banaee M., Akhlaghi M., Soltanian S. Sureda A., Gholamhosseini A., Rakhshaninejad M. (2020). Combined effects of exposure to sub-lethal concentration of the insecticide chlorpyrifos and the herbicide glyphosate on the biochemical changes in the freshwater crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus. Ecotoxicology, 29: 1500-1515.

Banaee M., Akhlaghi M., Soltanian S., Gholamhosseini A., Heidarieh H., Fereidouni M.S. (2019a). Acute exposure to chlorpyrifos and glyphosate induces changes in hemolymph biochemical parameters in the crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 222: 145-155.

Banaee M., Mirvagefei A., Rafei G.R., Majazi A.B. (2008). Effects of sublethal Diazinon concentrations on blood plasma. Biochemistry. International Journal of Environmental Research, 2(2): 189-198.

Banaee M., Mirvaghefei A.R., Majazi Amiri B., Rafei G.R., Nematdost B. (2011). Hematological and histopathological study of experimental diazinon poisoning in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of Fisheries (Iranian Journal of Natural Resources), 64(1): 1-14.

Banaee M., Mohammadipour S., Madhani S. (2015). Effects of sublethal concentrations of permethrin on bioaccumulation of cadmium in zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum). Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 97(2): 200-207.

Banaee M., Sureda A., Mirvagefei A.R., Ahmadi K. (2012). Histopathological alterations induced by Diazinon in Rainbow trout (Oncohrynchus mykiss). International Journal of Environmental Research, 7(3): 735-744.

Banaee M., Sureda A., Taheri S., Hedayatzadeh F. (2019b). Sub-lethal effects of dimethoate alone and in combination with cadmium on biochemical parameters in freshwater snail, Galba truncatula. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 220: 62-70.

Basic Information about Pesticide Ingredients. US Environmental Protection Agency (2018). Retrieved Dec 1, 2018.

Begum G. (2004). Carbofuran insecticides induced biochemical alterations in liver and muscle tissues of the fish Clarias batrachus (Linin) and recovery response, Aquatic Toxicology, 66: 83-92.

Bibi N., Zuberi A., Naeem M., Ullah I., Sarwar H., Atika B. (2014). Evaluation of acute toxicity of karate and its sub-lethal effects on protein and acetylcholinesterase activity in Cyprinus carpio. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 16: 731-737.

Bibi S., Khan R.L., Nazir R. (2016). Heavy metals in drinking water of Lakki Marwat District, KPK, Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 34(1): 15-19.

Bonner M.R., Freeman L.E., Hoppin J.A., Koutros S., Sandler D.P., Lynch C.F., Hines C.J., Thomas K., Blair A., Alavanja M.C. (2017). Occupational exposure to pesticides and the incidence of Lung Cancer in the agricultural health study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125: 544-551.

Bose S., Nath S., Sahana S.S. (2011). Toxic impact of thiamethoxam on the growth performance and liver protein concentration of a freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus (Trewavas). Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Science, 1: 274-280.

Calvert G.M., Karnik J., Mehler L., Beckman J., Morrissey B., Sievert J., Moraga-McHaley S. (2008). Acute pesticide poisoning among agricultural workers in the United States, 1998-2005. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 51(12): 883-898.

Cholz N.L., Fleishman E., Brown L., Werner I., Johnson M.L., Brooks M.L., Mitchelmore C.L. (2012). A perspective on modern pesticides, pelagic fish declines, and unknown ecological resilience in highly managed ecosystems. Bioscience, 62(4): 428-434.

Clasen B., Loro V.L., Murussi C.R., Tiecher T.L., Moraes B., Zanella R. (2018). Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress caused by pesticides in Cyprinus carpio reared in a rice-fish system. Science of The Total Environment, 626: 737-743.

Cocco P., Satta G., Dubois S., Pili C., Pilleri M., Zucca M., Mannetje A.M., Becker N., Benavente Y., De Sanjose S., Foretova L., Staines A., Maynadie M., Nieters A., Brennan P., Miligi L., Ennas M.G., Boffetta P. (2013). Lymphoma risk and occupational exposure to pesticides: results of the Epilymph study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70: 91-98.

Covert S.A., Shoda M.E., Stackpoole S.M., Stone W.W. (2020). Pesticide mixtures show potential toxicity to aquatic life in U.S. streams, water years 2013-2017. Science of The Total Environment, 141285.

Darçın E.S., Darçın M., Alkan M., Doğrul G. (2017). Occupational Risk Factors for Acute Pesticide Poisoning among Farmers in Asia. Poisoning - From Specific Toxic Agents to Novel Rapid and Simplified Techniques for Analysis. doi:10.5772/ intechopen.72006

Das B.K., Mukherjee S.C. (2003). Toxicity of cypermethrin in Labeo rohita fingerlings: biochemical, enzymatic and haematological consequences. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, 134(1): 109-121.

Debost-Legrand A., Warembourg C., Massart C., Chevrier C., Bonvallot N., Monfort C., … Cordier S. (2016). Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and organophosphate pesticides, and markers of glucose metabolism at birth. Environmental Research, 146: 207-217.

Fanta E., Sant Anna R., Romao F., Vianna A.C.C., Freiberger S. (2003). Histopathology of the fish Corydoras paleatus contaminated with sublethal levels of organophosphorus in water and food. Ecotoxicology and Environmenta Safety, 54: 119-130.

FAO, 2020. Pesticide Database Codex.

Farid S.S., El-Sayed E.M. (2015). Pesticides toxicity in fish with particular reference to insecticides. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences, 3(1): Retrieved from https://www.ajouronline.com/index.php/AJAFS/article/view/2156.

Fernandes S.R., Barreiros L., Oliveira R.F., Cruz A., Prudêncio C., Oliveira A.I., Pinho C., Santos N., Morgado J. (2019). Chemistry, bioactivities, extraction and analysis of azadirachtin: state-of the-art. Fitoterapia, 134: 141-150.

Gangemi S., Miozzi E., Teodoro M., Briguglio G., De Luca A., Alibrando C., Libra M. (2016). Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans. Molecular Medicine Reports, 14(5): 4475-4488.

Gianessi L.P. (2009). The value of insecticides in U.S. crop production. Crop life Foundation, Crop Protection Research Institute (CPRI).

Gill R.J., Raine N.E. (2014). Chronic impairment of bumble bee natural foraging behaviour induced by sublethal pesticide exposure. Functional Ecology, 28: 1459-1471.

Gunnell D., Eddleston M. (2003). Suicide by intentional ingestion of pesticides: a continuing tragedy in developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32: 902-909.

Gunnell D., Eddleston M., Phillips M.R., Konradsen F. (2007). The global distribution of fatal pesticide self-poisoning: Systematic review. BMC Public Health, 7(1): 357.

Haseena M., Malik M.F. (2017). Water pollution and human health. Environ Risk Assess Remediate, 1(3): 16-19.

Hatami M., Banaee M., Nematdoost Haghi B. (2019). Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with polyethylene glycol to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Chemosphere, 219: 981-988.

Hong Y., Huang Y., Yang X., Zhang J., Li L., Huang Q., Huang Z. (2020). Abamectin at environmentally-realistic concentrations cause oxidative stress and genotoxic damage in juvenile fish (Schizothorax prenanti). Aquatic Toxicology, 225: 105528.

Hong Y., Yang X., Huang Y., Yan G., Cheng Y. (2019). Assessment of the oxidative and genotoxic effects of the glyphosate-based herbicide roundup on the freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium nipponensis. Chemosphere, 210: 896-906.

Hughes J.B., Hebert A.T. (1991). Erythrocyte micronuclei in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus): results of field’s surveys during 1980-1988 from Virginia to Nova Scotia and in Long Island Sound. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 20: 474- 479.

Jadhav T.J., Pawar, S.M. (2018). Organic pesticides effect on freshwater fish Barbus ticto. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Research (IJSER), 7(8): 1-2.

Kamble S.M. (2014). Water pollution and public health issues in Kolhapur city in Maharashtra. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publication, 4(1): 1-6.

Kezios K.L., Liu X., Cirillo P.M., Cohn B.A., Kalantzi O.I., Wang Y., Factor-Litvak P. (2013). Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), DDT metabolites and pregnancy outcomes. Reproductive Toxicology, 35: 156-164.

Khan N., Hussain S.T., Saboor A. (2013). Physiochemica investigation of the drinking water sources from Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 8(33): 1661-1671.

Kushwaha B., Pandey S., Sharma S., Srivastava R., Kumar R., Nagpure N.S., Dabas A., Srivastava S.K. (2012). In situ assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of polluted river water in Channa punctatus and Mystus vittatus. International Aquatic Research, 4: 16-27.

Lee D.H., Lind P.M., Jacobs D.R., Salihovic S., van Bavel B., Lind L. (2011a). Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma predict the development of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The prospective investigation of the vasculature in Uppsala seniors (PIVUS) study. Diabetes Care, 34: 1778-1784.

Lee S.J., Mehler L., Beckman J., Diebolt-Brown B., Prado J., Lackovic M., Waltz J., Mulay P., Schwartz A., Mitchell Y., Moraga-McHaley S., Gergely R., Calvert G.M. (2011b). Acute pesticide illnesses associated with off-target pesticide drift from agricultural applications: 11 states, 1998-2006. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(8): 1162-1169.

Li Z., Jennings A. (2017). Worldwide regulations of standard values of pesticides for human health risk control: A review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(7): 826.

Little E.E., Archeski R.D., Flerov B.A., Kozlovskaya V.I. (1990). Behavioral indicators of sublethal toxicity in rainbow trout. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 19: 380-385.

Lu Y., Song S., Wang R., Liu Z., Meng J., Sweetman A.J. (2015). Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China. Environment International, 77: 5-15.

Mahmood I., Imadi S.R., Shazadi K., Gul A., Hakeem K.R. (2016). Effects of Pesticides on Environment. Plant, Soil and Microbes, 253-269.

Martel J., Ojcius D.M., Ko Y.F., Ke P.Y., Wu C.Y., Peng H.H., Young J.D. (2019). Hormetic effects of phytochemicals on health and longevity. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 30: 335-346.

Mesnage R., Tsakiris I.N., Antoniou M.N., Tsatsakis A. (2019). Limitations in the evidential basis supporting health benefits from a decreased exposure to pesticides through organic food consumption. Current Opinion in Toxicology, 19: 50-55.

Mostafalou S., Abdollahi M. (2012). Concerns of environmental persistence of pesticides and human chronic diseases. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, S5: e002.

Nagpure N.S., Kumar R., Kushwaha B., Singh P.J., Srivastava S.K. (2007). Genotoxicity Assessment in Fishes: A Practical Approach. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resource, Lucknow. 63 p.

Norman J.E., Mahler B.J., Nowell L.H., Van Metre P.C., Sandstrom M.W., Corbin M.A., Qian Y., Pankow J.F., Luo W., Fitzgerald N.B., Asher W.E., McWhirter K.J. (2020). Daily stream samples reveal highly complex pesticide occurrence and potential toxicity to aquatic life. Science of the Total Environment, 715: 136795.

Oerke E.C. (2005). Crop losses to pests. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 144: 31-43.

Ogueji E.O., Ibrahim B.U., Auta J. (2013). Investigation of acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos-ethyl on Clarias gariepinus - (Burchell, 1822) using some behavioural indices. International Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(2): 176-183.

Palanikumar L., Kumaraguru A.K., Ramakritinan C.M., Anand M. (2014). Toxicity, biochemical and clastogenic response of chlorpyrifos and carbendazim in milkfish Chanos chanos. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 11(3): 765-774.

Pandey A.K., Nagpure N.S., Trivedi S.P. (2018). Genotoxicity assessment of pesticide profenofos in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using comet assay and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Chemosphere, 211: 316-323.

Pan-Germany. (2012). Pesticide and health hazards. Facts Figures. 1-16 (www.panGermany.org/download/ Vergift_EN-201112-web.pdf).

Pereira L., Fernandes M.N., Martinez C.B.R. (2013). Hematological and biochemical alterations in the fish Prochilodus lineatus caused by the herbicide clomazone. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 36: 1-8.

Pérez G.L., Vera M.S., Miranda L. (2011). Effects of herbicide glyphosate and glyphosate-based formulations on aquatic ecosystems. In: A. Kortekamp (Ed.), Herbicides and Environment. ISBN: 978-953-307-476-4.

Pérez-Parada A., Goyenola G., Teixeira de Mello F., Heinzen H. (2018). Recent advances and open questions around pesticide dynamics and effects on freshwater fishes. Current Opinion in Environmental Science and Health, 4: 38-44.

Pesticides in Our Food System. FoodPrint. GRACE Communications (2018). Retrieved 26 March 2018. Polanco Rodriguez A.G., Riba Lopez M.I., DelValls Casillas T.A., Araujo Leon J.A., Mahjoub O., Prusty, A.K. (2017). Monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in blood of women with uterine cervix cancer. Environmental Pollution, 220: 853-862.

Popp J., Pető K., Nagy J. (2013). Pesticide productivity and food security. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33: 243-255.

Rao A.S., Pillala R.R. (2001). The concentration of pesticides in sediments from Kolleru Lake in India. Pest Management Science, 57: 620- 624.

Ressel H. (2015). Method for producing phosphinates. Patent number EP3356376A1. European Patent Office.

Ross G. (2005). Risks and benefits of DDT. Lancet, 366(9499): 1771-1772.

Sabarwal A., Kumar K., Singh R.P. (2018). Hazardous Effects of Chemical Pesticides on Human Health- Cancer and Other Associated Disorders. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 63: 103-114.

Satyavardhan K. (2013). A comparative toxicity evaluation and behavioral observations of freshwater fishes to fenvalerate. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 13: 133-136.

Schinasi L., Leon M.E. (2014). Non-hodgkin lymphoma and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide chemical groups and active ingredients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11: 4449-4527.

Schwartz D., Berger S., Heinzelmann E., Muschko K., Welzel K., Wohlleben W. (2004). Biosynthetic gene cluster of the herbicide phosphinothricin tripeptide from Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tu494. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70: 7093-7102.

Sharma A., Shukla A., Attri K., Kumar M., Kumar P., Suttee A., … Singla N. (2020). Global trends in pesticides: A looming threat and viable alternatives. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 201: 110812.

Simone T., Costa C., Umberto V., Giancarlo Q., Giovanni G. (2018). A survey of honey bee-collected pollen reveals widespread contamination by agricultural pesticides. Science of the Total Environment, 615: 208-218.

Srivastava P., Singh A. (2014). Study of in vivo effects caused by metabolites (1,2,4-Trizole Alanine) of steroid-inhibitor fungicide on aquatic life (fish). Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 4(4): 183.

Srivastava P., Singh A. (2013). Study on some neural and behavioral changes induced by carbamate (Mancozeb) fungicide on freshwater fish, Clarias batrachus. World Journal of Zoology, 8: 376-380.

Srivastava P., Singh A., Pandey A.K. (2016). Pesticides toxicity in fishes: biochemical, physiological and genotoxic aspects. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, 16(2): 199-218.

Stenersen J. (2004). Chemical Pesticides: Mode of Action and Toxicology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA. 296 p.

Sunanda M., Rao C.S.J., Neelima P., Rao G.K., Simhachalam G. (2016). Effects of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate pesticide) in fish. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 39(1): 299-305.

Tanner C.M., Kamel F., Ross G.W., Hoppin J.A., Goldman S.M., Korell M., Marras C., Bhudhikanok G.S., Kasten M., Chade A.R., Comyns K., Richards M.B., Meng C., Priestley B., Fernandez H.H., Cambi F., Umbach D.M., Blair A., Sandler D.P., Langston J.W. (2011). Rote-none paraquat, and Parkinson's disease. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119: 866-872.

Thenmozhi C., Vignesh V., Thirumurugan R., Arun S. (2011). Impacts of malathion on mortality and biochemical changes of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 8: 387-394.

Tiwari S., Singh A. (2004). Toxic and sublethal effects of oleandrin on biochemical parameters of freshwater air-breathing murrel, Channa punctatus (Bloch). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 42: 413-418.

Tiwari S., Singh A. (2009). Changes in some biochemical parameters in the liver and muscle of Colisa fasciatus due to toxicity of ethanolic extract of Narium indicum (Lal Kaner) latex. Journal of Natural Products, 8: 48-54.

Todd N.E., Leeuwen, M.V. (2002). Effects of seven (Carbaryl insecticide) on early life stages of Zebra fish (danio rerio). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 53: 267-272.

Tulgar A. (2018). Pesticide Pollution and their adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 8: DOI: 10.21275/ART20194502

Ujváry I. (2010). Pest control agents from natural products. In: R. Krieger (Ed.). Hayes’ handbook of pesticide toxicology. 3rd ed., Academic Press. pp: 119-229.

Ullah R., Zuberi A., Ullah S., Ullah I., Dawar F.U. (2014). Cypermethrin induced behavioural and biochemical changes in mahseer, Tor putitora. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 39: 829-836.

Van der Oost R., Beyer J., Vermeulen N.P. (2003). Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 13(2): 57-149.

Velmurugan B., Selvanayagam M., Cengiz E., Unlu E. (2009). Histopathological changes in the gill and liver tissues if freshwater fish (Cirrhinus mrigala) exposed to Dichlorvos. An International Journal of Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 52(5): 1291-1296.

Viant M.R., Christopher A.P., Ronald S.T. (2006). Metabolic effects of dinoseb, diazinon and esfenvalerate in eyed eggs andalevins of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) determined by1H NMR metabolomics. Aquatic Toxicology, 77: 359-371.

Warren G.F. (1998). Spectacular Increases in Crop Yields in the United States in the Twentieth Century. Weed Tech, 12: 752.

Wolff M.S., Engel S., Berkowitz G., Teitelbaum S., Siskind J., Barr D.B., Wetmur J. (2007). Prenatal Pesticide and PCB Exposures and Birth Outcomes. Pediatric Research, 61(2): 243-250.

Yadav Devi I., Ningombam. (2017). Pesticides Classification and its impact on human and environment. Environmental Science and Engineering, 6: 140-158.

Zaganas I., Kapetanaki S., Mastorodemos V., Kanavouras K., Colosio C., Wilks M.F., Tsatsakis A.M. (2013). Linking pesticide exposure and dementia: what is the evidence? Toxicology, 307: 3-11.

Zelikoff H.T., Raymond A., Carlson E., Anderson M. (2000). Biomarkers of immunotoxicity in fish: from the lab to the Ocean. Toxicology Letters, 325-331.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.