An overview of the pesticides’ impacts on fishes and humans

Eric Amenyogbe, Jian-sheng Huang, Gang Chen, Zhongliang Wang


Agrochemicals, also known as pesticides include nematicides, molluscicides, rodenticides, herbicides, fungicides and insecticides, can control pests, weeds, fungi, rodents, etc. The accumulation of pesticides in the food chain and water has harmful effects on humans and animals.  Despite the advantages provided by pesticides, aquatic organisms and human health are affected as the results of continuous usage of pesticides and issues of building up of chemical substances in aquatic organisms, such as fish. Pesticides must be lethal to the targeted species without any effect on non-targeted ones. Pesticides have harmful effects on the nervous system. Other pesticides are known to be carcinogenic substances. This review discussed the effects of pesticides on the immune system, protein, chromosomes, behavior, enzymes, growth, bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and changes in blood biochemical parameters of fish and humans and suggested some possible ways of mitigating such effects.


Pesticides, Immune system, Genotoxicity, Bioaccumulation.

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