Developmental morphology and growth patterns of laboratory-reared giraffe cichlid, Nimbochromis venustus Boulenger, 1908

Maryam Saemi-Komsari, Meysam Salehi, Mohammad Mansouri-Chorehi, Soheil Eagderi, Hamed Mousavi-Sabet

Abstract

The giraffe cichlid Nimbochromis venustus Boulenger, 1908 is a well-known species in aquarium trade. The laboratory-reared electric giraffe cichlid was studied in terms of early morphological development and allometric growth pattern from hatching until the juvenile stage i.e.51 dph. Total length increased linearly from hatching until 51 dph, with a high regression coefficient. The yolk sac exhaustion completed throughout 15 days. Significant morphological and morphometric variations occurred before the yolk sac absorption and early juvenile stage by evolving the anterior and posterior body section which improve swimming ability and food capturing. Positive growth coefficient of the body and trunk lengths were occurred after inflexion point coinciding with development of digestive system function. Eye diameter showed negative allometry at the inflexion point of 9.3 mm, continuing with positive growth rate until day 51. Body shape variation in early life history revealed consequent development in anterior and posterior body section in preflexion phase and development of body and trunk length in post flexion phase to support high survival of larvae. The present study emphasizes ontogenic study of different species to interpret biology and ecology of fish in association with evolutionary biology.

Keywords

Ontogeny, Growth, Embryo, Juvenile.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Ahmadi S., Khodadadi M., Salehi-Farsani A., Samadi-Kuchaksaraei B., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2013). Morphological development and growth of Bunni, Mesopotamichthys sharpeyi (Günther, 1874), larvae reared in the laboratory. Aqua, International Journal of Ichthyology, 19(2): 99-108.

Balon E.K. (1977). Early ontogeny of Labeotropheus Ahl, 1927 (Mbuna, Cichlidae, Lake Malawi), with a discussion of advanced protective styles in fish reproduction and development. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 2: 147-176.

Balon E.K. (1986). Types of feeding in the ontogeny of fishes and the life-history model. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 16: 11–24.

Balon E.K. (1999). Alternative ways to become a juvenile or a definitive phenotype (and on some persisting linguistic offenses). Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56: 17-38.

Bangerter D.L. (2007). Freshwater Tropical Aquarium Fish, liveaquaria.com. pp: 20-21

Christensen M.N., Korsgaard B. (1999). Protein metabolism, growth and pigmentation patterns during metamorphosis of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) larvae. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 237: 225-241.

Comabella Y., Azanza J., Hurtado A., Canabal J., García-Galano T. (2013). Allometric growth in Cuban gar (Atractosteus tristoechus) larvae. University and science [online]. .29(3): 301-315.

Coombs S., Montgomery J. (1994). Function and evolution of superficial neuromasts in an Antarctic notothenioid fish. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 44: 287–298.

Coombs S., Hastings M., Finneran J. (1996). Modeling and measuring lateral line excitation pattern to changing dipole source locations. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 178: 359-371.

Fuiman L.A. (1983). Growth gradients in fish larvae. Journal of Fish Biology, 23: 117-123.

Gisbert E. (1999). Early development and allometric growth patterns in Siberian sturgeon and their ecological significance. Journal of Fish Biology, 54: 852–862.

Gisbert E., Doroshov S.I. (2006). Allometric growth in green sturgeon larvae. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22(Suppl. 1): 202-207.

Gozlan R.E., Copp G.H., Tourenq J.N. (1999). Comparison of growth plasticity in the laboratory and field, implications for the onset of juvenile development in sofie, Chondrostoma toxostoma. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56: 153-165.

Harries G.G., Van Burgeijk W.N. (1962). Evidence that the lateral line organ responds to near held displacements of sound source in water. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 34: 1831-1841.

Huysentruyt F., Moerkerke B., Devaere S., Adriaens D. (2009). Early development and allometric growth in the armoured catfish Corydoras aeneus (Gill, 1858). Hydrobiologia, 627: 45-54.

Kamler E., Keckeis H. (2000). Reproduction and early life history of Chondrostoma nasus: implications for recruitment (a review). Polski Archive Hydrobiologie, 47: 73-85.

Khemis I.B., Gisbert E., Alcaraz C., Zouiten D., Besbes R., Zouiten A., Masmoudi A.S., Cahu C. (2013). Allometric growth patterns and development in larvae and juveniles of Thick-Lipped Grey Mullet Chelon labrosus Reared in Mesocosm Conditions. Aquaculture Research, 44: 1872-1888.

Kocher T.D. (2004). Adaptive evolution and explosive speciation: the cichlid fish model. Nature Reviews Genetics, 5(4): 288–298.

Konings A. (1990). Ad Konings's book of cichlids and all the other fishes of Lake Malawi. T.F.H. Publications, Inc. 495 p.

Leis J.M., Trnski T. (1989). The larvae of Indo-Pacific shorefishes. New South Wales University Press. Sydney. 371 p.

Maan M.E., Sefc K.M. (2013). Colour variation in cichlid fish: Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences. Semin Cell and Developmental Biology, 24(6-7): 516-528.

Makrakis M.C., Nakatani K., Bialetzki A., Sanches P.V., Baumgartnera G., Gomes L.C. (2005). Ontogenetic shifts in digestive tract morphology and diet of fish larvae of the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 72: 99-107.

Matsumoto S., Morioka S., Kumagai S. (2001). Development of African catfish Clarias gariepinus larvae during the transitional phase between endogenous and exogenous energy intake. In: O.L.F. Weyl, M.V. Weyl (Eds). Proceedings of the Lake Malawi Fisheries Management Symposium. Department of Fisheries of Malawi, Lilongwe. pp: 227-232.

Meyer A. (1993). Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary processes in east-African cichlid fishes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 8: 279–284.

Morioka S., Ito S., Kitamura S., Vongvichith B. (2009a). Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile climbing perch Anabas testudineus. Ichthyological Research, 56: 162-171.

Morioka S., Ito S., Kitamura S. (2009b). Growth and morphological development of laboratory-reared larval and juvenile snakeskin gourami Trichogaster pectoralis. Ichthyological Research, 57(1): 24-31.

Moser H.G. (1981). Morphological and functional aspect of marine fish larvae. In: R. Lasker (Ed). Marine Fish Larvae, Morphology ecology and Relation to Fisheries’, Washington Sea Grant Program, Uni. of Washington Press, Seattle. pp: 90-131.

Mousavi-Sabet H. (2011). The Effect of 17-Alpha Methyl Testosterone on Masculinization, Mortality Rate and Growth in Convict Cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum). World Journal of Fish and Marine Science, 3(5): 422-426.

Murata Y., Tamura M., Aita Y., Fujimura K., Murakami Y., Okabe M., Okada N., Tanaka M. (2010). Allometric growth of the trunk leads to the rostral shift of the pelvic fin teleost fishes. Developmental Biology, 347: 236-245.

Murphy B.F., Leis J.M., Kavanagh K.D. (2007). Larval development of the Ambon damsel fish Pomacentrus amboinensis, with a summary of pomacentrid development. Journal of Fish Biology, 71: 569-584.

Osse J.W. (1990). Form changes in fish larvae in relation to changing demands of function. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 40: 362-385.

Osse J.W., Boogaart J.G.M. (1995). Fish larvae, allometric growth and the aquatic environment. ICES Journal of Marine Science Symposium, 201: 21-34.

Osse J.W., Boogaart J.G.M., Snik G.M.J., Sluys L.V.D. (1997). Priorities during early growth of fish larvae. Aquaculture, 155: 249-258.

Osse J.W., Boogaart J.G.M. (1999). Dynamic morphology of fish larvae, structural implications of friction forces in swimming, feeding and ventilation. Journal of Fish Biology, 55: 156-174.

Osse J.W.M., Van den Boogaart J.G.M. (2004). Allometric growth in fish larvae: timing and function. In: J.J. Govoni (Ed). The Development of form and function in fishes and the question of larval adaptation. American Fisheries Society Symposium 40, Bethesda, MD, USA. pp: 167-194.

Petereit C., Haslob H., Kraus G., Clemmesen C. (2008). The influence of temperature on the development of Baltic Sea sprat (Sprattus sprattus) eggs and yolk sac larvae. Marine biology, 154: 295-306.

Porter S., Theilacker G. (1999). The development of the digestive tract and eye in larval walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma. Fishery Bulletin, 97: 722-729.

Riehl R., Baensch H.A. (1996). Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. 10th edition. Mergus Verlag GBH, Melle, Germany. 992 p.

Rodríguez-Mendoza R., Muñoz M., Saborido-Rey F. (2011). Ontogenetic allometry of the bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae), in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean based on geometric morphometrics. Hydrobiologia, 670: 5-22.

Saemi‐Komsari M., Mousavi‐Sabet H., Kratochwil C.F., Sattari M., Eagderi S., Meyer A. (2018). Early developmental and allometric patterns in the electric yellow cichlid Labidochromis caeruleus. 92(6): 1888-1901.

Shan X.J., Dou S.Z. (2009). Allometric growth of croaker Miichthys miiuy larvae and juveniles and its ecological implication. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica, 40: 714-718.

Snoeks J., Manuel J. (2004). The genus Nimbochromis Eccles & Trewavas, 1989. In: J. Snoeks (ed.). The cichlid diversity of Lake Malawi/Nyasa/Niassa: identification, distribution and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, USA. pp: 57-85.

Solbakken J.S., Norberg B., Watanab K., Pittman K. (1999). Thyroxine as a mediator of metamorphosis of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 56: 53-65.

Urho, L. 2002. Characters of larvae-what are they? Folia Zoologica, 51: 161-186.

Van Snik G.M.J., Van Den Boogaart J.G.M., Osse J.W.M. (1997). Larval growth patterns in Cyprinus carpio and Clarias gariepinus with attention to the finfold. Journal of Fish Biology, 50: 1339-1352.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.