Effects of Pirimicarb carbamate insecticide alone and in combination with lead (Pb) on biochemical parameters of soft tissues in freshwater snail, Galba truncatula

Marziyeh Raisi, Hamid Reza Pourkhabbaz, Mahdi Banaee, Alireza Pourkhabbaz, Saeideh Javanmardi


In this study, potential effects of Pirimicarb and lead (Pb) were investigated on biochemical parameters in tissues of freshwater snails, Galba truncatula. During an 8-day experiment, snails were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Pirimicarb (0.5 and 1 mg/L) and/or lead acetate (0.1 and 0.2 mg/L). Biochemical analyses of tissues to Photometric method in snails indicate that snails treated with Pirimicarb, Pb, or both Pirimicarb and Pb increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT) and decreased gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, compared to the control group. Alanine transferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were increased in combined treatments of Pirimicarb and Pb. Total antioxidant (TAO) level increased in snails exposed to both Pirimicarb and Pb, while it decreased in snails treated with either Pb or Pirimicarb. Cholesterol level increased in most experimental groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was showed no significant changes in groups treated with 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L of Pb compared to the control; however, AST enhanced in other treatments. In groups exposed to 0.5 and 1 mg/L of Pirimicarb, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was not significant, although a significant reduction was found in AChE level in other treatments. The results indicated that cytotoxicity of Pirimicarb alone and in combination with Pb depended on their concentrations. Higher concentrations of Pb induced significant changes in some biochemical parameters. Moreover, increased Pb level in water intensifies toxic effects of Pirimicarb in snails. Pirimicarb or/and Pb, in sub-lethal concentrations, induced oxidative damages in soft tissue of snails. Finally, these data support the hypothesis that changes in biochemical parameters were induced by exposure to Pirimicarb or/and Pb.


Pirimicarb insecticide, Lead, Biochemical parameters, Freshwater snail.

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