Effects of apple cider vinegar on growth performance and non-specific immune parameters of skin mucus in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings

Hamed Nekoubin, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar


This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of apple cider vinegar on growth performance and non-specific immune parameters of skin mucus (alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme and total protein) in common carp fingerlings. For this purpose, a total of 240 fish were stocked in twelve tanks for four treatment with three replications and fed by diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 4 % apple cider vinegar for 60 days. The result showed that there was no significant difference in body weight increase (BWI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and condition factor (CF) among the treatments (P>0.05). The results revealed that there is no significant difference among skin mucus alkaline phosphatase of fish in all treatments. Although skin mucus lysozyme activity and total protein significantly increased by apple cider vinegar in comparison with the control group. The highest and lowest skin mucus lysozyme activity and total protein in common carp fingerlings were observed at 2% apple cider vinegar and control group, respectively. Therefore, apple cider vinegar improves skin mucus lysozyme activity and total protein and can be a good candidate for antibiotic replacement in common carp fingerlings.


Common carp, Apple cider vinegar, Non-specific immune, Mucus.

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