The protective effect of Damask rose, Rosa damascena extract on the liver of Cyprinus carpio following zinc exposure

Milad Taleghani, Seyyed Mohammad Hoseini, Shila Omidzahir


This study aimed to examine two concentrations of Rosa damascene extract on toxic effect of Zn on the liver of common carp. For this purpose, four treatments with three replicates were designed as following: treatment one as control, treatment 2 exposed to 3 mg/l ZnSO4, and treatments 3 and 4 supplemented with 2.5 and 5 g of R. damascene extract along with exposure to 3 mg/L ZnSO4. After 45 days, the bioaccumulation of Zn and histopathological alternation in the liver, as well as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin were measured. The results showed the highest concentration of Zn in treatment, and its decreasing trend in treatments 3 and 4. The histopathological examinations showed the most alternations in treatment 2, but lower changes in treatment 3 and 4 due to application of R. damascene extract. In addition, those measured biochemical parameters had increased in treatment 2 following exposure to ZnSO4, whereas they had decrease in treatments 3 and 4. These results revealed positive effect of R. damascene extract to decrease toxicity of Zn on the liver of common carp.


Common carp, Bioaccumulation, Histopathology, Biochemical parameters.

Full Text:



Aggett P.J., Comerford J.G. (1995). Zinc and human health. Nutrition Reviews, 53(9): S16.

Ahmadivand S., Farahmand H., Mirvaghefi A.R., Eagderi S., Shokrpoor S., H Rahmati-Holasoo H. (2014). Histopathological and haematological response of male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to butachlor. Veterinarni Medicina, 59(9): 59(9):433-439.

Ahmadivand S., Farahmand H., Mirvaghefi A., Eagderi S., Zargar A. (2015). Effects of (Anti) Androgenic Endocrine Disruptors (DEHP and Butachlor) on Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Leukocytes Counts of Male Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 94(6): 695-700.

Alam M.A., Nyeem, M.A.B., Awal M.A., Mostofa M., Alam M.S., Subhan N., Rahman M.M. (2008). Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of the crude ethanolic extract of the flowering top of Rosa damascena. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, 8(2):164-170.

Al-Weher S. M. (2008). Levels of heavy metal Cd, Cu and Zn in three fish species collected from the northern Jordan valley, Jordan. Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(1): 41-46.

Arts M.J., Dallinga J.S., Voss H.P., Haenen G.R., Bast A. (2004). A new approach to assess the total antioxidant capacity using the TEAC assay. Food Chemistry, 88(4): 567-570.

Bancroft J.D., Gamble M. (2008). Theory and practice of histological techniques. Elsevier Health Sciences. 725 p.

Cai Y.Z., Xing J., Sun M., Zhan Z.Q., Corke H. (2005). Phenolic antioxidants (hydrolyzable tannins, flavonols, and anthocyanins) identified by LC-ESI-MS and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS from Rosa chinensis flowers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(26): 9940-9948.

Chavan V.R., Muley D.V. (2014). Effect of heavy metals on liver and gill of fish Cirrhinus mrigala. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 3(5): 277-288.

Czerny B., Put A., Mysliwiec Z., Juzyszyn Z. (2000). The influence of quercetin on some biochemical parameters in rats exposed to environmental contamination with fluorine compounds. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 9(3): 157-162.

Eagderi S., Amiri Mojazi B., Adriaens D. (2013). Description of the ovarian follicle maturation of the migratory adult female bulatmai barbel (Luciobarbus capito, Guldenstadt 1772) in captivity. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12(3): 550-560.

Edwards R.L., Lyon T., Litwin S.E., Rabovsky A., Symons J.D., Jalili T. (2007). Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(11): 2405-2411.

Georgieva E., Yancheva V., Velcheva I., Iliev I., Vasileva T., Bivolarski V., Becheva M., Stoyanova S. (2016). Histological and biochemical changes in liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) under metal exposure. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 12(2): 261-270.

Gregorović G., Kralj‐Klobučar N., Kopjar N.A. (2008). Histological and morphometric study on the tissue and cellular distribution of iron in carp Cyprinus carpio L. during chronic waterborne exposure. Journal of Fish Biology, 72(7): 1841-1846.

Hoseinifard S.M., Omidzahir S., Hoseini S.M., Beikaee H. (2018). Protective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against zinc poisoning in the testicular tissue of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Comparative Clinical Pathology, 27(2): 357-361.

Janssen C.R., Schamphelaere K.D., Heijerick D., Muyssen B., Lock K., Bossuyt B., Vangheluwe M., Sprang P.V. (2000). Uncertainties in the environmental risk assessment of metals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 6(6):1003-1018.

Kalim M.D., Bhattacharyya D., Banerjee A., Chattopadhyay S. (2010). Oxidative DNA damage preventive activity and antioxidant potential of plants used in Unani system of medicine. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10(1): 77.

Kanter M. (2010). Protective effect of quercetin on liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in rats. Journal of Molecular Histology, 41(6): 395-402.

Kaul V.K., Virendra S., Bikram S. (2000). Damask rose and marigold: prospective industrial crops. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences, 22(1B): 313-318.

Khaki A. (2010). Protective effect of quercetin against necrosis and apoptosis induced by experimental ischemia and reperfusion in rat liver. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 4(1): 022-026.

Kim D.O., Lee K.W., Lee H.J., Lee C.Y. (2002). Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(13): 3713-3717.

Luoma S.N., Rainbow P.S. (2008). Metal contamination in aquatic environments: science and lateral management. Cambridge university press. 573 p.

Murugan S.S., Karuppasamy R., Poongodi K., Puvaneswari S. (2008). Bioaccumulation pattern of zinc in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch.) after chronic exposure. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8(1): 55-59.

Mahmood N., Piacente S., Pizza C., Burke A., Khan A.I., Hay A.J. (1996). The Anti-HIV Activity and Mechanisms of Action of Pure Compounds Isolated from Rosa damascena. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 229(1):73-79.

Mazrouh M.M., Mahmoud H.H. (2009). Some aspects of reproductive biology with emphasis on the effect of pollution on the histopathological structure of gonads in Oreochromis niloticus from Rosetta Branch, Nile River, Egypt. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1(3): 190-198.

Moëzzi F., Javanshir A., Eagderi S., Hadi Poorbagher H. (2013). Histopathological effects of zinc (Zn) on mantle, digestive gland and foot in freshwater mussel, Anodonta cygnea (Linea, 1876). International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 1(2): 61-67

Murakami M., Hirano T. (2008). Intracellular zinc homeostasis and zinc signaling. Cancer Science, 99(8): 1515-1522.

Nasrolah Pourmoghadam M., Poorbagher H., Eagderi S. (2014). Histopathological effects of cypermethrin on liver of Aphanius sophiae (Heckel, 1849) using rank-based estimation for linear models. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 2(4): 184-18.

Özkan G., Sagdic O., Baydar N.G., Bayda H. (2004). Note: Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosa damascena flower extracts. Food Science and Technology International, 10(4): 277-281.

Pagiannisa I., Kagaloub I.C., Leonardosc J., Petridisd D., Kalfakakoua V. (2004). Copper and zinc in four freshwater fish species from Lake Pamvotis. Environment international, 30(3): 357-362.

Sadauskas E., Wallin H., Stoltenberg M., Vogel U., Doering P., Larsen A., Danscher G. (2007). Kupffer cells are central in the removal of nanoparticles from the organism. Part Fibre Toxicology, 4(1): 10.

Shalaby A.M. (2000). Sublethal effects of heavy metals copper, cadmium and zinc alone or in combinations on enzymes activities of common carp Cyprinus carpio. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 4(2): 229-246.

Shoskes D.A., Zeitlin S.I., Shahed, A., Rajfer J. (1999). Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology, 54(6): 960-963.

Slinkard K., Singleton V.L. (1977). Total phenol analysis: automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 28(1): 49-55.

Thophon S., Kruatrachue M., Upatham E.S., Pokethitiyook P., Sahaphong S., Jaritkhuan S. (2003). Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure. Environmental Pollution, 121(3): 307-320.

Velioglu Y.S., Mazza G. (1991). Characterization of flavonoids in petals of Rosa damascena by HPLC and spectral analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39(3): 463-467.

Wood C.M., Farrell A.P., Brauner C.J. (2012). Homeostasis and toxicology of essential metals. Academic Press, Science. San Diego. 497 p.

Yassa N., Masoomi F., Rankouhi S.R., Hadjiakhoondi A. (2015). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extract and essential oil of Rosa damascena from Iran, population of Guilan. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 17(3): 175-180.



  • There are currently no refbacks.