How the selective breeding in aquaculture programs can change the body shape of cyprinids; a case study on the native Cyprinus carpio and a cultured stock

Hamed Mousavi-Sabet, Adeleh Heidari, Meysam Salehi


Decades since restocking program of the vulnerable native Cyprinus carpio in the southern Caspian Sea, the cultured stocks in hatcheries have created new challenge to protect the native population. Releasing the cultured common carp in natural water-bodies caused an uncertainty about originality of the carp broodstocks within the restocking program. To clarify that how the selective breeding with aquaculture purpose could change the body shape with aiming to prepare an identification key for the indigenous and cultured stocks, a landmark based morphological characteristics of these stocks from the Anzali Wetland and a hatchery were analyzed. Univariate analysis of variance of 100 adult specimens collected during the non-reproductive season were observed in 62 morphometric characters out of 78 (P<0.05). Principle component analyze (PCA) of morphometric characteristic showed a high differentiation between these stocks. In morphometric traits, linear discriminate function analysis (DFA), the overall assignments of individuals into their original groups between stocks were 100%. The PCA and DFA showed a morphological segregation of the studied stocks based on the characters head shape, pre-dorsal, pre-pelvic and pre-anal distances, caudal peduncle depth, dorsal fin and ventral fin origins, body depth and caudal fin origin. The results showed stocks represent two distinct morphological forms of C. carpio that had high morphometric differentiation. The results can be useful as baseline information on the native stock for conservational policy. To protect the vulnerable population, using wild native broodstocks in the restocking program is strongly recommended.


Morphology, Stock Structure, Caspian Sea, Restocking program.

Full Text:



Bagherian A., Rahmani H. (2009). Morphological discrimination between two populations of Shemaya, Chalcalburnus chalcoides (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae) using truss network. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation, 32 (1): 1-8.

Bookstein F.L. (1991). Morphometric Tools for Landmark Data. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK: 435 p

Cardin S.X., Fried K.D. (1999). The utility of image processing techniques for morphometric analysis and stock identification. Fisheries Research, 43: 129–139.

Coad B.W. (2016). Freshwater fishes of Iran. Available at (accessed on 17 November 2017).

Ebrahimi G., Ouraji H. (2012). Growth performance and body composition of kutum fingerlings, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901), in response to dietary protein levels. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 36: 551-558.

Esmaeili H.R., Sayyadzadeh G., Eagderi S., Abbasi K. (2018). Checklist of freshwater fishes of Iran. FishTaxa, 3(3): 1-95.

Heidari A., Khoshkholgh M., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2014). Tracing the effects of Sefidrud dams on Capoeta gracilis (Cyprinidae) populations using Truss distances in southern Caspian Sea basin. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 1(2): 106-113.

Heidari A., Mousavi-Sabet H., Khoshkholgh M., Esmaeili H.R., Eagderi S. (2013). The impact of Manjil and Tarik dams (Sefidroud River, southern Caspian Sea basin) on morphological traits of Siah Mahi Capoeta gracilis (Pisces: Cyprinidae). International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 1(4): 195-201.

Jalili P., Eagderi S., Keivany Y. (2015). Body shape comparison of Kura bleak (Alburnus filippii) in Aras and Ahar-Chai rivers using geometric morphometric approach. Research in Zoology, 5(1): 20-24.

Kaiser H.F. (1974). An Index of Factorial Simplicity. Psychometrika, 39: 31-36.

Karakousis Y., Triantaphyllidis C., Economidis P.S. (1991). Morphological variability among seven populations of brown trout, Salmon trutta L., in Greece. Journal of Fish Biology, 38: 807-817.

Kocovsky PM., Adams J.V., Bronte CR. (2009). The effect of sample size on the stability of principal component analysis of truss-based fish morphometric. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 138: 487-496.

Kohestan-Eskandari S., AnvariFar H., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2013). Detection of Morphometric Differentiation of Liza aurata (Pisces: Mugilidae) in Southeastern of the Caspian Sea, Iran. Our Nature, 11(2): 126-137.

Kohestan-Eskandari S., AnvariFar H., Mousavi-Sabet H., Yousefi M., Khanzade M. (2014). A morphology-based hypothesis for homeward migration success and population differentiation in the anadromous kutum Rutilus kutum (Pisces: Cyprinidae) along the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. Folia Zoologica, 63 (3): 151-160.

Mohadasi M., Eagderi S., Shabanipour N., Hosseinzadeh M., AnvariFar H., Khaefi R. (2014). Allometric body shape changes and morphological differentiation of Shemaya, Alburnus chalcoides (Guldenstadf, 1772), populations in the southern part of Caspian Sea using morphometrics analysis. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 2(3): 164-171.

Mostafa A., Hossain R., Nahiduzzaman M.d., Debasish S., Habiba Khanam M.U., Alam M.S. (2010). Landmark-Based Morphometric and Meristic Variations of the Endangered Carp, Kalibaus Labeo calbasu, from stocks of two Isolated Rivers, the Jamuna and Halda, and a Hatchery. Zoological Studies, 49(4): 556-563.

Mousavi-Sabet H., Anvarifar H. (2013). Landmark-based morphometric variation between Cobitis keyvani and Cobitis faridpaki (Pisces: Cobitidae), with new habitat for C. faridpaki in the southern Caspian Sea basin. Folia Zoologica, 62(3): 167-175.

Natsumeda T., Tsuruta T., Takeshima H., Awata S., Iguchi K. (2014). Variation in morphological characteristics of Japanese fluvial sculpin related to different environmental conditions in a single river system in eastern Japan. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, 23: 114-120.

Nimalathasan B. (2009). Determinants of key performance indicators (KPIs) of private sector banks in Sri Lanka: an application of exploratory factor analysis. In: The annals of the Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, vol 9, Fascicle of the Faculty of Economics and Public Administration. pp: 9-17.

Paknejad S., Heidari A., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2014). Morphological variation of shad fish Alosa brashnicowi (Teleostei, Clupeidae) populations along the southern Caspian Sea coasts, using a truss system. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 2(6): 330-336.

Pinheiro A, Teixeira C.M., Rego A.L., Marques J.F., Cabral H.N. (2005). Genetic and morphological variation of Solea lascaris (Risso, 1810) along the Portuguese coast. Fisheries Research, 73: 67-78.

Poulet N., Berrebi P., Crivelli .AJ. Lek S., Argillier C. (2004). Genetic and morphometric variations in the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L.) of a fragmented delta. Arch Hydrobiology Journal, 159: 531-554.

Radkhah A., Eagderi S., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2016). First record of the exotic species Hemiculter leucisculus (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in southern Iran. Limnetica, 35(1): 175-178.

Rohlf F.J. (2005). TPS Dig, version 2.04. State University of New York, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook.

Strauss R.E., Bookstein F.L. (1982). The truss: body form reconstruction in morphometrics. Systematic Zoology, 31: 113-135.

Swain D.P., Foote C.J. (1999). Stocks and chameleons: the use of phenotypic variation in stock identification. Fisheries Research, 43: 113-128.

Tudela S. (1999). Morphological variability in a Mediterranean, genetically homogeneous population of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus. Fisheries Research, 42: 229-243.

Turan C., Erguden D., Gurlek M., Basusta N., Turan F. (2004b). Morphometric structuring of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Black, Aegean and northeastern Mediterranean Seas. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28: 865-871.

Turan C., Erguden D., Turan F., Gurlek M. (2004a). Genetic and morphologic structure of Liza abu (Heckel, 1843) populations from the Rivers Orontes, Euphrates and Tigris. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 28: 729-734.

Tzeng T.D. (2004). Morphological variation between populations of spotted mackerel Scomber australasicus of Taiwan. Fisheries Research, 68: 45-55.

Vatandoust S., Abdoli A., Anvarifar H., Mousavi-Sabet, H. (2014a). Morphometric and meristic characteristics and morphological differentiation among five populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta fario (Pisces: Salmonidae) along the southern Caspian Sea basin. International Journal of Zoological Research, 3(2): 56-65.

Vatandoust S., Mousavi-Sabet H., Razeghi-Mansour M., AnvariFar H., Heidari A. (2015). Morphometric variation of the endangered Caspian lamprey, Caspiomyzon wagneri (Pisces: Petromyzontidae), from migrating stocks of two rivers along the southern Caspian Sea. Zoological Studies, 56: 1-9.

Vatandoust S., Nejati M., Anvarifar H., Mousavi-Sabet H. (2014b). Morphological Differentiation of Vimba persa (Pisces: Cyprinidae) along the southern Caspian Sea Basin, Iran. International Journal of Zoological Research, 3(2): 94-102.

Wimberger P.H. (1992). Plasticity of fish body shapes - the effects of diet, development, family and age in two species of Geophagus (Pisces: Cichlidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 45: 197-218.

Zar J.H. (1984). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.


  • There are currently no refbacks.