Can the PAMOLARE 1-layer model predict eutrophication in hypertrophic lakes? A Case study: the Zaribar Lake, Iran

Amir Hossein Hamidian, Mansoureh Hassanzadeh


Eutrophication is known as the most common problem in water bodies, caused by high concentrations of different nutrients leading to unbalanced growth of aquatic plants, among other symptoms. Hence, the possibility of eutrophication prediction can be beneficial to the sustainable management of these natural resources and create an opportunity to control their trophic conditions over time. A software package applied for generating these predictions is PAMOLARE with its different models (layers). The 1-Layer model of this method was selected to investigate the trophic condition of hypertrophic Zaribar Lake. Prior to 1012, water samples were collected from six stations over a seven-year period. During the last year of this period, sediment samples were also collected. The concentrations of N and P were measured in the samples. The initial results showed that the Zaribar Lake is a hypertrophic water body. Applying the PAMOLARE 1-Layer model showed that this model was not powerful enough to predict the trophic changes in this hypertrophic water body and suggested that other models should be examined and modified for use in these ecosystems. Alternatively, it is necessary to improve the software for the prediction of eutrophication in hypertrophic water bodies.


Eutrophication, Hypertrophic, PAMOLARE, Zaribar Lake.

Full Text:



Andrews J.W., Murai T., Campbell C. (1973). Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on growth, food conversion, bone ash and haematocrit levels of catfish. Journal of Nutrition, 103: 766-771.

Baeverfjord G., Asgad T., Shearer K.D. (1998). Development and detection of phosphorus deficiency in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., parr and post-smolts. Aquaculture Nutrition, 4: 1-11.

Beattie J.H., Avenell A. (1992). Trace element nutrition and bone metabolism. Nutrition Research Reviews, 5: 167-188.

Brown M.L., Jaramillo F., Gatlin D.M. (1993). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile sunshine bass, Morone chrysops ♀ × M. saxatilis ♂. Aquaculture, 113: 355-363.

Cahu C., Zambonino-Infante J.L. (2003). Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae. Aquaculture, 227: 245-258.

Duncan D.B. (1955). Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

Fontagné S., Silva N., Bazin D., Ramos A., Aguirre P., Surget A., Abrantes A., Kaushik S.J., Power D.M. (2009). Effects of dietary phosphrus and calcium level on growth and skeletal development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Aquaculture, 297: 141-150.

Helland S., Refstie S., Espmark A., Hjelde K., Baeverfjord G. (2005). Mineral balance and bone formation in fast-growing Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) in response to dissolved metabolic carbon dioxide and restricted dietary phosphorus supply. Aquaculture, 250: 364-376.

Kiabi B.H., Abdoli A., Naderi M. (1999). Status of the fish fauna in the south Caspian Basin of Iran. Zoology in Middle East, 18: 57-65.

Koumoundouros G., Divanach P., Kentouri M. (2001). The effect of rearing conditions on development of saddleback syndrome and caudal fin deformities in Dentex dentex (L.). Aquaculture 200: 285-304

Lall S.P. (2002). The minerals. In: Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. (Eds.), Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 259-308.

Lall S.P., Lewis-Mccrea L.M. (2007). Role of nutrients in skeletal metabolism and pathology in fish. Aquaculture, 267: 3-19.

Nwanna L.C., Adebayo I.A., Omitoyin B. (2008). Effect of different levels of phosphorus on growth and mineralization in African giant at fish Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffrey Saint Hillarie, 1809). Environmental Management, 12: 25-32.

Roy P.K., Lall S.P. (2003). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.). Aquaculture, 221: 451-468.

Sadler J., Pankhurst P.M., King H.R. (2001). High prevalence of skeletal deformity and reduced gill surface area in triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Aquaculture, 198: 369-386

Sauveur B., Perez J.M. (1987). Mineral nutrition of nonruminants. In: Feeding of non-ruminant livestock (translated and ed. by J. Wiseman), pp. 19-25. Butterworth and Co. Ltd, London.

Sfakianakis D.G., Georgakopoulou E., Papadakis I., Divanach P., Kentouri M., Koumoundouros G. (2006). Environmental determinants of haemal lordosis in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture, 254: 54-64

Tacon A.G. (1992). Nutritional fish pathology. Morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, vol. 330. FAO, Rome, Italy. 75 pp.

Uyan O., Koshio S., Ishikawa M., Uyan S., Ren T., Yokoyama S., Komilus C.F., Michael F.R. (2007). Effects of dietary phosphorus and phospholipid level on growth, andphosphorus deficiency signs in juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture, 267: 44-54.

Vielma J., Lall S.P. (1998). Phosphorus utilization by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in freshwater is not influenced by higher dietary calcium intake. Aquaculture, 160: 117-128.

Wallach S. (2002). Disorders of skeleton and kidney stones. In: Bedrdanier C.D. (Ed.), Handbook of Nutrition and Food. CRC Press, Florida, USA, pp. 1275-1289.


  • There are currently no refbacks.