Investigation of different levels of glycerol on cyst hatching percentage, total length and survival of Phallocryptus spinosa and Artemia franciscana

Pooria Gholamzadeh, Kamran Rezaei Tavabe, Gholamreza Rafiee, Masoud Seidgar


Artemia and fairy shrimps due to propitious size and wide distribution throughout the world, purvey ample feed resources with relatively favorable nutritional value to profitable aquatic species. Ambient water physical-chemical properties affect the biological function of zooplanctonic cysts. Glycerol is an alcoholic compound which is soluble in water and it  has three hydroxyl groups that are responsible for solubility in water. There is a relationship between the presence of free glycerol in water and cysts metabolic rate and dormancy duration. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of free glycerol in the hatchery water on hatching percentage, total length of nauplius and mortality rate of Phallocryptus spinosa and Artemia franciscana cysts. In this experiment, four triplicate treatments including 0% (control), 0.1%, 1% and 10% of glycerol were used on A. franciscana and P. spinosa hatchery water for 48 hours and 72 hours, respectively. The results revealed that 0.1% glycerol was the most efficient level for hatching percentage of P. spinosa cysts with 28.86±1.6%. Also, the size of total length of newly hatched nauplii in this treatment was 0.75±0.08 mm that was significantly greater than the other treatments (P≤0.05); there was no significant difference in the mortality percentage between this treatment and the control treatment. In A. franciscana, the highest hatching rate (68.33±4.71%) and nauplius length (0.90±0.08 mm) were recorded in the 1% glycerol treatment. According to the results, glycerol at 0.1% level for P. spinosa and 1% level for A. franciscana are suitable in the cysts hatching media to increase hatching rate and nauplii performance. Our work could contribute to a better understanding of the hatching biology of dormant life stages in zooplanctonic crustaceans.


Live food, Phallocryptus spinosa, Artemia franciscana, Glycerol.

Full Text:



Abatzopoulos T.J., El-Bermawi N., Vasdekis C., Baxevanis A.D., Sorgeloos P. (2003). Effects of salinity and temperature on reproductive and life span characteristics of clonal Artemia. (International Study on Artemia. LXVI). Hydrobiologia, 492: 191-199.

Agh N., Van Stappen G., Bossier P., Sepehri H., Lotfi V., Razavi Rouhani S.M., Sorgeloos P. (2008). Effects of salinity on survival, growth, reproduction and life span characteristics of Artemia population from Urmia Lake and neighboring lagoons. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11(2): 164-172.

Arun V., saharan N., Ramasubaranian V., Babitha rani A., Salin K., Ravindra S., Harsha H., Deepak G.P. (2017). Multi-response optimization of Artemia hatching process using split-split-plot design based response surface methodology. Scientific Reports, 7: 40394.

Atashbar B., Agh N., Stappen G., Mertens J., Beladjal L. (2014). The combined effect of temperature and salinity on hatching characteristics of three fairy shrimp species (Crustacea: Anostraca). Journal of limnology, 73(3): 574-583.

Brown R.A., Wanigasekera G. (2000). Combined effects of salinity and temperature on survival and reproduction of five species of Artemia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 244: 29-44.

Brtek J., Mura G. (2000). A revised key to families and genera of the Anostraca with notes on their geographical distribution. Crustaceana, 73: 1037-1088.

Clegg J.S. (1964). The Control of emergence and metabolism by external osmotic pressure and the role of free glycerol in developing cysts of Artemia salina. Journal of Experimental Biology, 41: 879-892.

Crab R., Lambert A., Defoirdt T., Bossier P., Verstraete W. (2010). The application of bioflocs technology to protect brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) from pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 109: 1643-1649.

Drewes C. (2006). Quantitative investigations of hatching in brine shrimp cysts., in Tested Studies for Laboratory Teaching, Volume. Proceedings of the 27th Workshop/Conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE). pp: 299-312

Drinkwater L.E., Crowe J.H. (1991). Hydration State, metabolism, and hatching of Mono Lake artemia cysts. The Biological Bulletin, 180: 432-439.

Gholamzadeh P. (2018). Investigation of effects of different levels of glycerol and water total hardness and various Ca: Mg ratios on larval quality of the fairy shrimp Phallocryptus spinosa and Artemia franciscana. Master's Thesis. The University of Tehran.

Gholamzadeh P., Rezaei Tavabe K., Rafee G., Seidgar M. (2018). The study of different levels of hardness and different rations of Ca and Mg water hardness on cyst hatching and larval quality of fairy shrimp: Phallocryptus spinosa. Journal of the Animal Environment, (Accpeted paper).

Hafezieh M., Hosseinpour H. (2009). Effect of salinity on the reproduction model of Artemia in Urmia Lake. Journal of Biology, 1(2): 21-28.

Jmaes S., Clegg B. (1964). The Control of emergence and metabolism by external osmotic pressure and the role of free glycerol in developing cysts of Artemia salina. Journal of Experimental Biology, 41: 879-892.

Jmaes S., Clegg B. (1962). Free glycerol in dormant cystes of the brine shrimp Artemia salina, and its disappearance during development. Biological Bulletin, 123(2): 295-301.

Kolkovski S., Curnow J., King J. (2004). Intensive rearing system for fish larvae research II Artemia hatching and enriching system. Aquacultural Engineering, 31: 309-317.

Lavens P., Sorgeloos P. (1996). Manual on the production and use of live food for aquaculture. FAO Technical Paper. 305 p.

Lotfi G.G.V., Agh N., Sepehri H. (2003). Effects of different salinities on growth, survival, life history and reproductive charachteristics of three populations of Artemia from Iran. Journal of Science, 2: 305-16.

López-Torres M.A., Lizárraga-Partida M.L. (2001). Bacteria isolated on TCBS media associated with hatched Artemia cysts of commercial brands. Aquaculture, 194: 11-20.

Murugan G., Dumont H. (1995). Influence of light, DMSO and glycerol on the hatchability of Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard cysts. Hydrobiologia, 298: 175-178.

Nambu Z., Nambu F., Tanaka S. (1997). Purification and Characterization of Trehalase from Artemia Embryos and Larvae. Zoological Science, 14: 419-427.

Rezaei Tavabe K., Rafiee G., Shoeiry M.M., Houshmandi S. (2015). Effects of water hardness and Calcium: Magnesium ratios on reproductive performance and offspring quality of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Journal of the world Aquaculture Society, 46(5): 519-530.

Royan J.P., Sumitra K., Ramaiah N. (1987). Cyst quality and hatching in parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences, 16: 249-252

Saravanakumar P., Soundarapandian G. (2009). Effect of different salinities on the survival and growth of Artemina Spp. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(2): 20-22.

Sorgeloos P., Lavens P., Léger P., Tackaert W., Versichele D. (1986). Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in Aquaculture. Belgium: Artemia Reference Center, Faculty of Agriculture, State University of Ghent, 10: 91-95.

Triantaphyllidis G., Poulopoulou V., Abatzopoulos T.I., Perez A.A.P., Sorgeloos P. (1995). International study on Artemia XLIX. Salinity effects on survival, maturity, growth, biometrics, reproductive and lifespan characteristic of a bisexual and a parthenogenitc population of Artemia. Hydrobiologia, 302: 215-227.

Trotman C.N.A. (1991). Normality and abnormality in early development. In: R.A. Browne, P. Sorgeloos, C.N.A. Trotman, (eds.). Artemia Biology. CRC Press, Boca, Raton, Florida. pp: 75-92.

Wear R.G., Huslett S.J. (1987). Studies on the biology and ecology of Artemia from Lake Grassmere, New Zealand. In: P. Sorgeloos, D.A. Bengtson, W. Decleir, E. Jaspers (eds.). Artemia Research and its Applications. Ecology, Culturing, Use in Aquaculture, Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium. pp: 101-126.

Wheeler R., Yudin A.I., Clark W.H. (1979). Hatching events in the cysts of Artemia salina. Aquaculture, 18, 59-67.

Zmora O., Shpigel M. (2006). Intensive mass production of Artemia in a recirculated system. Aqauculture, 255: 488-494.


  • There are currently no refbacks.