Helminth parasites fauna of the green toad, Bufo variabilis, Laurenti, 1768 (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Fars Province, Iran

Ehsan Rakhshandehroo, Amin Ahmadi, Zahra Asadollahi


The green toad, Bufo variabilis has been a common species of toads in Iran with a wide distribution in most provinces. The main goal of this study was to determine the helminth parasite fauna of B. variabilis in southwest of Iran. Among 30 toads inspected for helminth infection from different sites, 100% harbored one or more parasite species. Some toads were afflicted by intestinal obstruction, due to the infection with a large number of cestodes. Twenty-eight cases (93%) had mixed infection with cestodes (in intestine) and nematodes (in lung). Also, a toad was infected with a single monogenean parasite in its urinary bladder. The identified helminth parasites were monogenean, Polystoma viridis; cestode, Nematotaenia dispar and a species of nematode, Rhabdias ranae. This study reports for the first time the presence of nematode species R. ranae in B. variabilis in Iran.


Bufo variabilis, Parasite infection, green toad, Polystoma spp., Nematotaenia spp., Rhabdias ranae.

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