Use of a zero-exchange brackish water biofloc system to increase growth, survival, and color intensity of guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859)
Biofloc technology is based on carbon metabolism and nitrogen immobilizing microbial activities. The present study aimed to maintain water quality and increase the production performance of guppy Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859) in a zero-water exchange brackish water biofloc system. Twenty P. reticulata were stocked into each treatment and control tank in triplicate and fed a formulated diet at a rate of 3% of body mass daily. In control-1, 50% water was exchanged weekly following the industrial practice, and no water was exchanged in control-2 and the treatment. Depending on the concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) in water, rice bran as a carbon source was added to the treatment tanks to keep the C:N ratio at 20:1. Water quality in biofloc treatment and control-1 was within the favorable range for P. reticulata. TAN and pH in tanks with zero water exchange were significantly higher (P<0.05). Weight gain, specific growth rate, survival rate, final weight and length of P. reticulata in the biofloc treatment were significantly higher (P<0.05) than controls. Fish reared in the biofloc treatment had an intense bright red body and fin color compared to those in the controls. Biofloc technology can be adopted to maintain water quality and enhance the production performance of P. reticulata in zero-water exchange brackish water culture systems.
American Public Health Association (APHA). (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 2nd edition, American Public Health Association, Washington.
Asaduzzaman M., Wahab M.A., Verdegem M.C.J., Mondal M.A., Azim M.E. (2009). Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C:N controlled periphyton based system. Aquaculture, 286: 72-79.
Avnimelech Y. (2007). Feeding with microbial flocs by tilapia in minimal discharge bio-flocs technology ponds. Aquaculture, 264: 140-147.
Avnimelech Y. (1999). Carbon/nitrogen ratio as a control element in aquaculture systems. Aquaculture, 176: 227-235.
Avnimelech Y., Kochba M. (2009). Evaluation of nitrogen uptake and excretion by tilapia in bio floc tanks, using 15N tracing. Aquaculture, 287: 163-168.
Azim M.E., Little D.C. (2008). The biofloc technology (BFT) in indoor tanks: water quality, biofloc composition, and growth and welfare of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 283: 29-35.
Bakhshi F., Najdegerami E.H., Manaffar R., Tukmechi A., Farah K.R. (2018). Use of different carbon sources for the biofloc system during the grow-out culture of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Aquaculture, 484: 259-267.
Bonatto K.O., Delariva R.L., Silva J.C. (2012). Diet and trophic guilds of fish assemblages in two streams with different anthropic impacts in the northwest of Paraná, Brazil. Zoologia, 29: 27-38.
Crab R., Avnimelech Y., Defoirdt T., Bossier P., Verstraete W. (2007). Nitrogen removal techniques in aquaculture for a sustainable production. Aquaculture, 270: 1-14.
Crab R., Chielens B., Wille M., Bossier P., Verstraete W. (2010). The effect of different carbon sources on the nutritional value of bioflocs, a feed for Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae. Aquaculture Research, 41: 559-567.
da Cunha L., Bese, K.P., Ha N., Uczay J., Skoronski E., Fabregat T.E.H.P. (2020). Biofloc technology (BFT) improves skin pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Aquaculture, 522: 735132.
Dauda A.B., Romano N., Ebrahimi M., Teh J.C., Ajadi A., Chong C.M., Karim M., Natrah I., Kamarudin M.S. (2018). Influence of carbon/nitrogen ratios on biofloc production and biochemical composition and subsequent effects on the growth, physiological status and disease resistance of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) cultured in glycerol-based biofloc systems. Aquaculture, 483: 120-130.
De Schryver P., Sinha A.K., Kunwar P.S., Baruah K., Verstraete W., Boon N., De Boeck G., Bossier P. (2010). Poly-?-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) increases growth performance and intestinal bacterial range-weighted richness in juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 86: 1535-1541.
Decamp O., Moriarty D.J., Lavens P. (2008). Probiotics for shrimp larviculture: A review of field data from Asia and Latin America. Aquaculture Research, 39: 334-338.
Deocampo Jr. J.E., Fenol J.T., Yerro E.B.S., Pakingking Jr. R.V., Caipang C.M.A. (2021). Biofloc technology (BFT): a promising approach for the intensive production of ornamental fish. Poeciliid Research, 11: 18-24.
Dussault G.V., Kramer D.L. (1981). Food and feeding behavior of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 59: 684-701.
Dzikowski R., Hulata G., Karplus I., Harpaz S. (2001). Effect of temperature and dietary L-carnitine supplementation on reproductive performance of female guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Aquaculture, 199: 323-332.
Ekasari J. (2008). Bioflocs technology: the effect of different carbon sources, salinity and the addition of probiotics on the primary nutritional value of the bioflocs. Aquaculture Research, 44: 643-654.
Ekasari J., Zairin J.M., Putri D.U., Sari N.P., Surawidjaja E.H., Bossier P. (2015). Biofloc?based reproductive performance of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus broodstock. Aquaculture Research, 46: 509-512.
Emerenciano M., Cuzon G., Goguenheim J., Gaxiola G. and Aquacop. (2012). Floc contribution on spawning performance of blue shrimp Litopenaeus stylirostris. Aquaculture Research, 44: 75-85.
Emerenciano M., Gaxiola G., Cuzon G. (2013). Biofloc technology (BFT): a review for aquaculture application and animal food industry. Biomass Now-cultivation and Utilization, 7: 301-328.
Emerenciano M.G.C., Martínez-Córdova L.R., Martínez-Porchas M., Miranda-Baeza. (2017). Biofloc technology (BFT): a tool for water quality management in aquaculture. Water quality, 5: 92-109.
Export Development Board (EDB) (2023). Aquarium Fish Export Performance, Sri Lanka 2013-2023. https://www.srilankabusiness.com/aquarium-fish/ aquarium-export-performance.html. Retrieved 05/19/ 2023.
Hargreaves J.A. (2013). Biofloc production systems for aquaculture. Stoneville, MS: Southern Regional Aquaculture Center. 11 p.
Harini C., Rajagopalasamy C.B.T., Kumar J.S.S., Santhakumar R. (2016). Role of biofloc in the growth and survival of blue morph, Pseudotropheus saulosi. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9: 1-7.
Ip Y.K., Chew S.F. (2010). Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review. Frontiers in Physiology, 4: 134.
Jayadeep A., Vasudeva S., Sathyendra Rao B.V., Srinivas A., Ali S.Z. (2009). Effect of physical processing of commercial de-oiled rice bran on particle size distribution, and content of chemical and bio-functional components. Food Bioprocess Technology, 2: 57-67.
Joya Saha M.A., Hossain M., Mamun Al., Islam M.R., Alam M.S. (2022). Effects of carbon-nitrogen ratio manipulation on the growth performance, body composition and immunity of stinging catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in a bio floc-based culture system, Aquaculture Reports, 25: 101274.
Ju Z.Y., Forster I., Conquest L., Dominy W. (2008). Enhanced growth effects on shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from inclusion of whole shrimp floc or floc fractions to a formulated diet. Aquaculture Nutrition, 14: 533-543.
Khanjani M.H., Sajjadi M.M., Alizadeh M., Sourinejad I. (2017). Nursery performance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) cultivated in a biofloc system: the effect of adding different carbon sources. Aquaculture Research, 48: 1491-1501.
Kishawy A.T.Y., Sewid A.H., Nada H.S., Kamel M.A., El-Mandrawy S.A.M., Abdelhakim T.M.N., El-Murr A.E.I., Nahhas N.E., Hozzein W.N., Ibrahim D. (2020). Mannanoligosaccharides as a carbon source in Biofloc boost dietary plant protein and water quality, growth, immunity and Aeromonas hydrophila resistance in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Animals, 10: 1724.
Lim Y.H.F. (2018). Performance of freshwater ornamental fish in a biofloc system reared at various stocking densities. Major Project Report, Diploma in Veterinary Technology, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore.128 p.
Luo G., Gao Q., Wang C., Liu W., Sun D., Li L., Tan H. (2014). Growth, digestive activity, welfare, and partial cost-effectiveness of genetically improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system and an indoor biofloc system. Aquaculture, 422: 1-7.
Mahanand S.S., Moulick S., Rao P.S. (2013). Optimum formulation of feed for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), with biofloc as a component. Aquaculture International, 21: 347-360.
Michaud L., Blancheton J.P., Bruni V., Piedrahita R. (2006). Effect of particulate organic carbon on heterotrophic bacterial populations and nitrification efficiency in biological filters. Aquacultural Engineering, 34: 224-233.
Minabi K., Sourinejad I., Alizadeh M., Ghatrami E.R., Khanjani M.H. (2020). Effects of different carbon to nitrogen ratios in the biofloc system on water quality, growth, and body composition of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Aquaculture International, 28: 1883-1898.
Mirzakhani N., Ebrahimi E., Jalali S.A.H., Ekasari J. (2019). Growth performance, intestinal morphology and nonspecific immunity response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry cultured in biofloc systems with different carbon sources and input C: N ratios. Aquaculture, 512: 34-45.
Mousavi-Sabet H., Eagderi S. (2014). First record of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae) from natural freshwaters of Iran. Poeciliid Research, 4: 19-23.
Najdegerami E.H., Bakhshi F., Lakani F.B. (2016). Effects of biofloc on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and liver histology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings in zero-water exchange system. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 42: 457-465.
Panigrahi A., Sundaram M., Chakrapani S., Rajasekar S., Syama Dayal J., Chavali G. (2019). Effect of carbon and nitrogen ratio (C: N) manipulation on the production performance and immunity of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in a biofloc?based rearing system. Aquaculture Research, 50: 29-41.
Parameshwaran K., Edirisinghe U., Dematawewa C.M.B., Nandasena K.G. (2001). Effect of live and formulated feeds on larval growth and survival of guppy (Poecilia reticulata) reared in indoor tanks. Aquaculture Research, 483: 120-130.
Rajkumar M., Pandey P.K., Aravind R., Vennila A., Bharti V., Purushothaman C.S. (2016). Effect of different biofloc systems on water quality, biofloc composition, and growth performance in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931). Aquaculture Research, 47: 3432-3444.
Rubin A.J., Elmaraghy G.A. (1977). Studies on the toxicity of ammonia, nitrate and their mixtures to guppy fry. Water Research, 11: 927-935.
Schneider O., Sereti V., Eding E.H., Verreth J.A.J. (2005). Analysis of nutrient flows in integrated intensive aquaculture systems. Aquacultural Engineering 32: 379-401.
Serra F.P., Gaona C.A., Furtado P.S., Poersch L.H., Wasielesky W. (2015). Use of different carbon sources for the biofloc system adopted during the nursery and grow- out culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture International, 23: 1325-1339.
Sefc K.M., Brown A.C., Clotfelter E.D. (2014). Carotenoid-based coloration in cichlid fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A. Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 173: 42-51.
Sirimanna S.R., Dissanayaka C. (2019). Effects of culture conditions on growth and survival of Poecilia sphenops and Poecilia reticulata. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 7: 202-210.
Van Wyk P., Davishodgkins M., Laramore R., Main K.L., Mountain J., Scarpa J. (1999). Farming marine shrimp in recirculating freshwater systems. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Tallahassee. 21 p.
Wang G., Yu E., Xie J., Yu D., Li Z., Luo W., Qiu L., Zheng Z. (2015). Effect of C:N ratio on water quality in zero-water exchange tanks and the biofloc supplementation in feed on the growth performance of crucian carp, Carassius auratus. Aquaculture, 443: 98-104.
Xu W.J., Pan L.Q. (2013). Enhancement of immune response and antioxidant status of Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile in biofloc-based culture tanks manipulating high C/N ratio of feed input. Aquaculture, 412-413:117-124.
Yusuf M.W., Utomo N.B.P., Yuhana M. (2015). Growth performance of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in biofloc-based super intensive culture added with Bacillus sp. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 10: 523-525.
Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Aquatic Biology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.