Effect of garlic extract supplementation on growth performance, nonspecific immunity, and antibacterial activity of skin mucus in goldfish, Carassius auratus

Antimicrobial activity Garlic extract Growth Immune parameters Skin mucus.


  • Hamidreza Ahmadniaye Motlagh Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
  • omid Safari Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
  • Sajjad Pourmozaffar Persian Gulf Mollusks Research Station, Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecology Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Bandar-e-Lengeh, Iran.
December 23, 2021


In the present study, the effects of dietary supplementation of garlic extract on growth performance, skin mucus immunological parameters and antibacterial activity of Carassius auratus were examined. Fish were stocked in 100 L glass tanks (6 fish per tank) in triplicate and fed diets containing different garlic extracts (0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 ml/kg] for eight weeks. At the end of feeding period, the fish skin mucus was collected for evaluating the components of non-specific immune system (including lysozyme, complement, total immunoglobulin, dissolved protein, and alkaline phosphatase). Additionally, antimicrobial activity of the skin mucus against Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia ruckeri, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus faecium, and S. iniae was assessed. After the feeding trial, the fish fed diets containing garlic extract showed no significant difference in growth parameters. Significantly higher skin mucus lysozyme, complement, alkaline phosphatase activities, and total immunoglobulin and dissolved protein concentration were observed in the fish fed garlic extract-supplemented diets (P<0.0001). The antimicrobial activity of the skin mucus increased along with the increase in the dietary garlic extract levels (P<0.0001). Moreover, garlic extract exhibited the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species. The highest level of dietary garlic extract (15 ml/kg) led to significantly higher inhibition zones against pathogenic bacterial species compared to the other garlic extract levels (P<0.0001). The optimal administration of garlic extract at 15 ml/kg enhance skin mucus immune parameters and antimicrobial activity in goldfish.