Length-weight, Condition factor and gonadosomatic index of blackspot snapper Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskal, 1775) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in the northern Persian Gulf

Alireza Razi, Ahmad Noori


The present study aimed to evaluate the length-weight and Length-length relationships as well as the condition factor and gonadosomatic index of the Blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma in the northern Persian Gulf, Hormozgan Province, Iran. The specimens were collected monthly from April 2016 to March 2017. The size (TL, total length; FL, fork length; SL, standard length) were measured and weighted (BW, total body wet weight). A total of 446 individuals were analyzed. The TL-BW relationship indicated isometric growth pattern in both sexes. In females, the means for condition factor was higher than males. In both sexes, the lowest value of both condition factor and gonadosomatic index were detected in autumn with ascending trend in the next seasons reaching the peak in spring. The oscillation in condition factor, as well as gonadosomatic throughout the sampling year, was most prominent in females which may be related to the reproductive cycle. The information reinforces data to define fishing closed seasons in this important fish that is used in many places in the world.


Allometric growth, Gonadosomatic index, Lutjanidae, Reproductive season.

Full Text:



Allen G.R. (1985). Snappers of the world: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. 248 p.

Busacker G.P., Adelman I.R., Goolish E.M. (1990). Growth. In: C.B. Schereck, R.B. Moyle (Eds.). Methods for Fish Biology, American Fisheries Society Bethesda, Maryland, USA. pp: 363-387.

Carpenter K.E., Niem V.H. (2001). FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO Fisheries Department, Rome.

Davis T.L. (1992). Growth and mortality of Lutjanus vittus (Quoy and Gaimard) from the North West Shelf of Australia. Fishery Bulletin, 90: 395-404.

Fernandes C.A., de Oliveira P.G., Travassos P.E., Hazin F.H. (2012). Reproduction of the Brazilian snapper, Lutjanus alexandrei Moura & Lindeman, 2007 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), off the northern coast of Pernambuco, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology, 10: 587-592.

Fischer A.J., Baker Jr M.S., Wilson C.A., Nieland D.L. (2005). Age, growth, mortality, and radiometric age validation of gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) from Louisiana. Fishery Bulletin, 103: 307-319.

Froese R. (2006). Cube law, condition factor and weight–length relationships: history, meta‐analysis and recommendations. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 22: 241-253.

Fry G.C., Milton D.A. (2009). Age, growth and mortality estimates for populations of red snappers Lutjanus erythropterus and L. malabaricus from northern Australia and eastern Indonesia. Fisheries Science, 75: 1219-1229.

Grandcourt E., Al Abdessalaam T.Z., Francis F., Al Shamsi A. (2011). Demographic parameters and status assessments of Lutjanus ehrenbergii, Lethrinus lentjan, Plectorhinchus sordidus and Rhabdosargus sarba in the southern Arabian Gulf. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27: 1203-1211.

Grandcourt E.M., Abdessalaam T.Z.A., Francis F. (2006). Age, growth, mortality and reproduction of the blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål, 1775), in the southern Arabian Gulf. Fisheries Research, 78: 203-210.

Grimes C.B. (1987). Reproductive biology of the Lutjanidae: a review. In: J. Polovina, S. Ralston (Eds.). Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management, Westview Press. London. pp: 239-294.

Hartnoll R. (1982). Growth. In: D.E. Bliss (Ed.). The biology of crustacea: embryology, morphology and genetics, Academic Press. New York. pp: 111-196.

Huxley J. (1950). Relative growth and form transformation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 137: 465-469.

Kamukuru A., Hecht T., Mgaya Y. (2005). Effects of exploitation on age, growth and mortality of the blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma, at Mafia Island, Tanzania. Fisheries Management and Ecology, 12: 45-55.

Kamukuru A.T., Mgaya Y.D. (2004). Effects of exploitation on reproductive capacity of blackspot snapper, Lutjanus fulviflamma (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in Mafia Island, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology, 42: 270-280.

Kaunda-Arara B., Ntiba M.J. (1997). The reproductive biology of Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forsskål,1775) (Pisces: Lutjanidae) in Kenyan inshore marine waters. Hydrobiologia, 353: 153-160.

Kritzer J.P. (2002). Variation in the population biology of stripey bass Lutjanus carponotatus within and between two island groups on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 243: 191-207.

Kritzer J.P. (2004). Sex-specific growth and mortality, spawning season, and female maturation of the stripey bass (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef. Fishery Bulletin, 102: 94-107.

Letourneur Y., Kulbicki M., Labrosse P. (1998). Length-weight relationship of fishes from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia: an update. Naga, The ICLARM Quarterly, 21: 39-46.

Lima-Junior S.E., Cardone I.B., Goitein R. (2002). Determination of a method for calculation of Allometric Condition Factor of fish. Acta Scientiarum: Biological and Health Sciences: 397-400.

Lloret J., Shulman G., Love R.M. (2013). Condition and health indicators of exploited marine fishes. John Wiley & Sons. 247 p.

Luckhurst B.E., Dean J.M., Reichert M. (2000). Age, growth and reproduction of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Bermuda. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 203: 255-261.

Marriott R.J., Mapstone B.D., Begg G.A. (2007). Age-specific demographic parameters, and their implications for management of the red bass, Lutjanus bohar (Forsskal 1775): A large, long-lived reef fish. Fisheries Research, 83: 204-215.

McPherson G. (1992). Age and growth of three dominant Lutjanus species of the Great Barrier Reef inter reef fishery. Asian Fisheries Science, 5: 25-36.

Mir J.I., Shabir R., Mir F.A. (2012). Length-weight relationship and condition factor of Schizopyge curvifrons (Heckel, 1838) from River Jhelum, Kashmir, India. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4: 325-329.

Nanami A., Kurihara T., Kurita Y., Aonuma Y., Suzuki N., Yamada H. (2010). Age, growth and reproduction of the humpback red snapper Lutjanus gibbus off Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Ichthyological Research, 57: 240-244.

Newman S., Skepper C., Wakefield C. (2010). Age estimation and otolith characteristics of an unusually old, red emperor snapper (Lutjanus sebae) captured off the Kimberley coast of north‐western Australia. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 26: 120-122.

Newman S.J. (2002). Growth rate, age determination, natural mortality and production potential of the scarlet seaperch, Lutjanus malabaricus Schneider 1801, off the Pilbara coast of north-western Australia. Fisheries Research, 58: 215-225.

Newman S.J., Cappo M., Williams D.M. (2000). Age, growth and mortality of the stripey, Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) and the brown-stripe snapper, L. vitta (Quoy and Gaimard) from the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fisheries Research, 48: 263-275.

Newman S.J., Dunk I.J. (2002). Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 55: 67-80.

Newman S.J., Williams D.M., Russ G.R. (1996). Age validation, growth and mortality rates of the tropical snappers (Pisces: Lutjanidae) Lutjanus adetii (Castelnau, 1873) and L. quinquelineatus (Bloch, 1790) from the central Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 47: 575.

Patterson III W.F., Cowan Jr J.H., Wilson C.A., Shipp R.L. (2001). Age and growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from an artificial reef area off Alabama in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin, 99: 617-628.

Piñón A., Amezcua F., Duncan N. (2009). Reproductive cycle of female yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Pisces, Actinopterygii, Lutjanidae) in the SW Gulf of California: gonadic stages, spawning seasonality and length at sexual maturity. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 25: 18-25.

Radkhah A., Eagderi S. (2015). Length-weight and length-length relationships and condition factor of six cyprinid fish species of Zarrineh River (Urmia Lake basin, Iran). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 2(1): 61-64.

Rahman M.M. (2017). Gonadosomatic index-based size at first sexual maturity of male and female Amblygaster clupeoides (Bleeker, 1849) (Clupeidae) on the east coast of the Malaysian peninsular. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 33: 579-582.

Ramachandran S., Ali D., Varghese B.C. (2013). Age, growth and maturity of brown stripe snapper Lutjanus vitta (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824) from southwest coast of India. Journal of Marine Biological Association of India, 55: 61-68.

Ricker W. (1973). Linear regressions in fishery research. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 30: 409-434.

Russell D., McDougall A. (2008a). Reproductive biology of mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimacuiatus) in northeastern Queensland, Australia. New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, 42: 219-232.

Russell D., McDougall A. (2008b). Reproductive biology of mangrove jack (Lutjanus argentimaculatus) in northeastern Queensland, Australia. New Zealand journal of marine and freshwater research, 42: 219-232.

Shimose T., Nanami A. (2014). Age, growth, and reproductive biology of blacktail snapper, Lutjanus fulvus, around the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa, Japan. Ichthyological Research, 61: 322-331.

Shimose T., Nanami A. (2015). Age, growth, and reproduction of blackspot snapper Lutjanus fulviflammus (Forsskål 1775) around Yaeyama Islands, southern Japan, between 2010 and 2014. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 31: 1056-1063.

Shimose T., Tachihara K. (2005). Age, growth and maturation of the blackspot snapper Lutjanus fulviflammus around Okinawa Island, Japan. Fisheries Science, 71: 48-55.

Teixeira S.F., Duarte Y.F., Ferreira B.P. (2010). Reproduction of the fish Lutjanus analis (mutton snapper; Perciformes: Lutjanidae) from Northeastern Brazil. Revista de Biologia Tropical, 58: 791-800.

White D.B., Palmer S.M. (2004). Age, growth, and reproduction of the red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from the Atlantic waters of the southeastern US. Bulletin of Marine Science, 75: 335-360.

Wilson C.A., Nieland D.L. (2001). Age and growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from the northern Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana. Fishery Bulletin, 99: 653-665.

Zamani Faradonbeh M., Eagderi S., Ghojoghi F. (2015a). Length-weight relationship and condition factor of seven fish species of Totkabon River (southern Caspian Sea basin), Guilan, Iran. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 3(3): 172-176

Zamani-Faradonbeh M., Eagderi S., Shahbazi-Naserabad S. (2015b). Length-weight relationships and condition factor of three fish species from Taleghan River (Alborz Province, Iran). Journal of advanced Botany and Zoology, 2(3): 1-3

Zar J.H. (2010). Biostatistical analysis. Fifth edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 944 p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.