Quantitative analysis of histopathological lesions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from northern Iran farms
This study was conducted to evaluate the health of rainbow trout on three farms in Mazandaran Province using a quantitative analysis of the histopathological alteration method. The fish were sampled within three classes: <100, 300-700, and >1500 g. Ten fish were sampled per size class from each farm. The fish gill, liver, kidney, and intestine pieces were collected, fixed, sectioned, mounted on slides, and stained for histopathological examinations. A quantitative approach was followed to examine the tissues alternation and fish. The results showed that the organ index of the gill in 300-700 and >1500 g fish was significantly higher than <100 g ones. The organ index of the liver in >1500 g fish was significantly higher than in the other two groups. There was no significant difference in the organ index of the kidney and intestine. Organ index within each fish size was as follow: gill> liver> kidney> intestine. Moreover, the total index was calculated based on the organ index in a fish and, accordingly, <100 g fish had the lowest total index than 300-700 and >1500 g fish. In conclusion, the fish gill exhibited more pathological changes due to direct contact with the ambient environment. Moreover, the fish intestines were generally healthy, suggesting suitable diet quality, although vacuolization and hypertrophy of the hepatocytes show that the dietary fat and feeding rate should be controlled.
Ahmadivand S., Farahmand H., Mirvaghefi A.R., Eagderi S., Shokrpoor S. (2014). Histopathological and haematological response of male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to butachlor. Veterinarni Medicina, 59(9): 433-439.
Alavian Petroody S.S., Hamidian A.H., Ashrafi S., Eagderi S., Khazaee M. (2017). Study on age-related bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in the soft tissue of rock oyster (Saccostrea cucullata) from Laft Port-Qeshm Island, Iran. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 16(3): 897-906.
Al-Bairuty G.A., Shaw B.J., Handy R.D., Henry T.B. (2013). Histopathological effects of waterborne copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on the organs of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology, 126: 104-115.
Altun S., í–zdemir S., Arslan H. (2017). Histopathological effects, responses of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis biomarkers and alteration of gene expressions related to apoptosis, oxidative stress, and reproductive system in chlorpyrifos-exposed common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Environmental Pollution, 230: 432-443.
Bernet D., Schmidt H., Meier W., Burkhardt"Holm P., Wahli, T. (1999). Histopathology in fish: proposal for a protocol to assess aquatic pollution. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22(1): 25-34.
Chen N., Jiang J., Gao X., Li, X., Zhang Y., Liu X., Yang H., Bing X., Zhang X. (2018). Histopathological analysis and the immune related gene expression profiles of mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 83: 410-415.
Dawood M.A.O., Gewaily M.S., Monier M.N., Younis E.M., Van Doan H., Sewilam H. (2021). The regulatory roles of yucca extract on the growth rate, hepato-renal function, histopathological alterations, and immune-related genes in common carp exposed with acute ammonia stress. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 534: 736287.
Di Giulio R.T., Hinton, D.E. (2008). The Toxicology of Fishes. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL. 1096 p.
Eagderi S., Mojazi A.B., D Adriaens D. 2013. Description of the ovarian follicle maturation of the migratory adult female bulatmai barbel (Luciobarbus capito, Guldenstadt 1772) in captivity. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 12(3): 550-560.
Elahee K.B., Bhagwant S. (2007). Hematological and gill histopathological parameters of three tropical fish species from a polluted lagoon on the west coast of Mauritius. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 68(3): 361-371.
FAO. (2019). Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792). FAO, Roma, Italy.
FAO. (2020). Fishery statistical collections: global aquaculture production. FAO, Roma, Italy, pp: 2.
Ghelichpour M., Rajabiesterabadi H., Hoseini, S.M. (2016). Gill histopathological characteristics of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) fingerlings treated with potassium permanganate and formalin. Aquaculture Research, 47(1): 276-282.
Ghelichpour M., Taheri Mirghaed A., Hoseini S.M., Perez Jimenez A. (2020). Plasma antioxidant and hepatic enzymes activity, thyroid hormones alterations and health status of liver tissue in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to lufenuron. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 516: 734634.
Hedayati A., Hoseini S.M., Ghelichpour M. (2014). Acute toxicity of waterborne manganese to Rutilus caspicus (Yakovlev, 1870)-gill histopathology, immune indices, oxidative condition, and saltwater resistance. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 96(10): 1535-1545.
Hirazawa N., Ishizuka R., Hagiwara H. (2016). The effects of Neobenedenia girellae (Monogenea) infection on host amberjack Seriola dumerili (Carangidae): Hematological and histopathological analyses. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 461: 32-39.
Hoseini S.M., Hedayati A., Ghelichpour M. (2014). Plasma metabolites, ions and thyroid hormones levels, and hepatic enzymes×³ activity in Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) exposed to waterborne manganese. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 107: 84-89.
Hoseini S.M., Rajabiesterabadi H., Kordrostami S. (2016a). Chronic exposure of Rutilus rutilus caspicus fingerlings to ambient copper: Effects on food intake, growth performance, biochemistry and stress resistance. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 32(2): 375-383.
Hoseini S.M., Gharavi B., Iri Y. (2019). Assessment of vital organ histopathology and plasma oxidative conditions of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared in earthen saltwater pond. RUDN Journal of Agronomy and Animal Industries, 14(3): 255-265.
Hoseini S.M., Hosseini S.A., Eskandari S., Amirahmadi M. (2016b). Effect of dietary taurine and methionine supplementation on growth performance, body composition, taurine retention and lipid status of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897), fed with plant"based diet. Aquaculture Nutrition, 24(1): 324-331.
Hoseini S.M., Hedayati A., Taheri Mirghaed A., Ghelichpour M. (2016c). Toxic effects of copper sulfate and copper nanoparticles on minerals, enzymes, thyroid hormones and protein fractions of plasma and histopathology in common carp Cyprinus carpio. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, 68(9): 493-503.
Hoseini S.M., Hosseini S.A., Eskandari S., Amirahmadi M., Sudagar M. (2016d). The effect of dietary taurine on growth performance and liver histopathology in Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) fed plant-based diet. Aquaculture Research, 48(8): 4184-4196.
Hoseini S.M., Mirghaed A.T., Paray B.A., Hoseinifar S.H., Van Doan H. (2020). Effects of dietary menthol on growth performance and antioxidant, immunological and biochemical responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 524: 735260.
Hoseini S.M., Sinha R., Fazel A., Khosraviani K., Hosseinpour Delavar F., Arghideh M., Sedaghat M., Paolucci M., Hoseinifar S.H., Van Doan H. (2021). Histopathological damage and stress- and immune-related genes' expression in the intestine of common carp, Cyprinus carpio exposed to copper and polyvinyl chloride microparticle. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 337(2): 181-190.
JovanoviÄ‡ B., GökdaÄŸ K., Gí¼ven O., Emre Y., Whitley E.M., Kideys A.E. (2018). Virgin microplastics are not causing imminent harm to fish after dietary exposure. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 130: 123-131.
Mangang Y.A., Pandey P.K. (2021). Hemato-biochemical responses and histopathological alterations in the gill and kidney tissues of Osteobrama belangeri (Valenciennes, 1844) exposed to different sub-lethal unionized ammonia. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 542: 736887.
Mokhbatly A.-A.A., Assar D.H., Ghazy E.W., Elbialy Z., Rizk S.A., Omar A.A., Gaafar A.Y., Dawood M.A. (2020). The protective role of spirulina and Î²-glucan in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against chronic toxicity of chlorpyrifos: hemato-biochemistry, histopathology, and oxidative stress traits. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27(25): 31636-31651.
Ortega Asencios Y., Barreiro Sánchez F., Bueno Mendizábal H., Huancaré Pusari K., Ostos Alfonso H., Manchego Sayán A., Pereira Figueiredo M.A., Gómez Manrique W., de Andrade Belo M.A., Sandoval Chaupe N. (2016). First report of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from Oreochromis niloticus in Piura, Peru: Molecular identification and histopathological lesions. Aquaculture Reports, 4: 74-79.
Paray B.A., Hoseini S.M., Hoseinifar S.H., Van Doan H. (2020). Effects of dietary oak (Quercus castaneifolia) leaf extract on growth, antioxidant, and immune characteristics and responses to crowding stress in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 524: 735276.
Peyghan R., Takamy G.A. (2002). Histopathological, serum enzyme, cholesterol and urea changes in experimental acute toxicity of ammonia in common carp Cyprinus carpio and use of natural zeolite for prevention. Aquaculture International, 10(4): 317-325.
Saraiva A., Costa J., Eiras J.C., Cruz C. (2016). Histological study as indicator of juveniles farmed turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. health status. Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 459: 210-215.
Saraiva A., Costa J., Serrí£o J., Cruz C., Eiras J.C. (2015). A histology-based fish health assessment of farmed seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Aquaculture (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 448: 375-381.
Wolf J.C., Baumgartner W.A., Blazer V.S., Camus A.C., Engelhardt J.A., Fournie J.W., Frasca S., Groman D.B., Kent M.L., Khoo L.H., Law J.M., Lombardini E.D., Ruehl-Fehlert C., Segner H.E., Smith S.A., Spitsbergen J.M., Weber K., Wolfe M.J. (2014). Nonlesions, misdiagnoses, missed diagnoses, and other interpretive challenges in fish histopathology studies: a guide for investigators, authors, reviewers, and readers. Toxicologic Pathology, 43: 297-325.
Zepeda-Velázquez A.P., Vega-Sánchez V., Salgado-Miranda C., Soriano-Vargas E. (2015). Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 79: 250-254.
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Aquatic Biology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.