The effect of ripe papaya, Carica papaya, as natural carotenoids meal on body pigmentation and growth performance in banded gourami, Trichogaster fasciata
The present investigation elucidates the synergistic effects of improvised ecological parameters and ripe papaya (Carica papaya) meal on skin pigmentation, growth performance and survival of Banded gourami, Trichogaster fasciata, under confined environment. A feeding trial of 60 days was done with initial length groups from 6.6 to 9.7 cm using five isonitrogenous experimental diets formulated by supplementing graded levels of carotenoids at 1 to 5% and a control without carotenoids. Two ecological parameters temperature and light intensity were elevated using artificial modulators. At the onset of the feeding trial, the total carotenoid concentration in fish muscle in both male (2.94±0.07 Î¼g.g-1) and female (2.54±0.05 Î¼g.g-1), respectively, which significantly increased, highest being in male (6.86±0.12 Î¼g.g-1) and female (5.96±0.07Î¼g.g-1) fishes fed with 4% papaya meal. Positive correlation, (0.98) in male and (0.97) female was observed between elevated levels of dietary carotenoids and body pigmentation which revealed that incorporation of dietary carotenoids resulted in a significant increase in total carotenoid concentration in chromatophores. Congenial effects were observed on body indices was revealed by positive correlation of weight (0.79) to elevated levels of carotenoid and 100% survival rate of the fishes. The feeding regimes showed ripe papaya meal as cheap natural colour enhancer source can be safely supplemented at 4% levels in the diets to increase the skin pigmentation and optimum conditioning in optimized captive environment having temperature range of 26-28oC and light intensity 344.0-346 Lux, without any xenobiotic effect on Banded gourami.
Alagappan M., Vijula K., Sinha A. (2004). Utilization of spirulina algae as a source of carotenoid pigment for blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus Pallas). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 10: 1-11.
Alma A., del Villar-Martinez J., Orbe-Rogel E.C., Vanegas-Espinoza P., Quintero- Gutierrez A.G. Lara-Flores M. (2013). The effect of marigold (Tagetes erecta) as natural carotenoid source for the pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Research Journal of Fisheries and Hydrobiology, 8(2): 31-37.
AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC, 18th edition. (Horwitz, W. Ed), AOAC, Washington. D.C. 1094 p.
Amar E.C., Kiran V., Satoh S., Watanabe T. (2001). Influence of various dietary synthetic carotenoids on bio defense mechanism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walboum). Aquaculture Research, 32(Suppl.1): 162-163.
APHA (2005). Standard Methods for the examination of waste and wastewater. 21st ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. (various pagings)
Biswas A.K., Endo M., Takeuchi T. (2002). Effects of different photoperiod cycles on metabolic rate and energy loss of both fed and unfed young tilapia Oreochromis niloticus: Fisheries Science, 68: 465-477.
Biswas A.K., Takeuchi T. (2002). Effect of different photoperiod cycles on metabolic rate and energy loss of fed and unfed adult Oreochromis niloticus: Fisheries Science, 68(3): 543-553.
Biswas A.K., Morita T., Yoshizaki G., Maita M., Takeuchi T. (2005). Control of reproduction in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus by photoperiod manipulation. Aquaculture, 243(1-4): 229-239.
Boeuf G., Le Bail P.Y. (1999). Does light have an influence on fish growth? Aquaculture, 177: 129-152.
Boonyarapatin M., Lovell R.T. (1977). Diet preparation for aquarium fish. Aquaculture, 12: 53-62.
Boonyaratpalin M., Phromkunthong W. (1986). Effects of carotenoid pigments from different sources on colour changes of fancy carp, Cyprinus carpio Linn. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 8: 11-20.
Boonyaratpalin M., Unprasert N. (1989). Effect of pigments from different sources on colour changes and growth of red Oreochromis niloticus. Aquaculture, 79: 375-380.
Britton G. (1995). Carotenes by their chemical structure. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47(2): 1990-2001.
Chapman F.A. (2000). Ornamental fish culture, freshwater. In: R.E. Stickney (Ed.). Encyclopedia of aquaculture, New York: John Wiley and Sons. pp: 602-610.
Caissie D. (2006). The thermal regime of rivers: a review. Freshwater Biology, 51: 1389-1406.
Chatzifotis S., Pavlidis M., Jimeno C.D., Vardanis G., Sterioti A., Divanach P. (2005). The effect of different carotenoid sources on skin coloration of cultured red porgy (Pagrus pagrus). Aquaculture Research, 36(15): 1517-1525.
Choubert G. (1979). Tentative utilization of spirulina algae as a source of carotenoid pigments for rainbow trout. Aquaculture, 18: 135-143.
Christiansen R., Lie O., Torrissen O.J. (1995). Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed different dietary levels of astaxanthin. First-feeding fry. Aquaculture Nutrition, 1: 189-198.
Christiansen R. Torrissen O.J. (1996). Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed different dietary level of astaxanthin. Juveniles. Aquaculture Nutrition, 2: 55-62.
Dallas H.F. (2008). Water temperature and riverine ecosystems: An overview of knowledge and approaches for assessing biotic responses, with special reference to South Africa. Water SA, 34: 393–404.
Das A.P., Biswas S.P. (2016). Carotenoids and Pigmentation in Ornamental Fish. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology, 4(4): 00093.
Das A.P., Biswas S.P. (2019). Improvised protocol for quantitative determination of crude fat in fish feeds. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology, 8(4): 144-146.
Duston J., Saunders R.L. (1990). The entrainment role of photoperiod on hypoosmoregulatory and growth-related aspects of smolting in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68: 707-715.
Endler J.A. (1980). Natural selection on color patterns in Poecilia reticulata. Evolution, 34: 76-91.
Ezhil J., Jeyanthi C., Narayanan M. (2008). Marigold as a carotenoid source on pigmentation and growth of red swordtail, Xiphophorus helleri. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 8: 99-102.
Fey M., Meyers S.P. (1980). Evaluation of carotenoid-fortified flake diets with pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Journal of Aquaculture, 1: 15-19.
Francis O.N. (1995). Hatchery propagation of five hybrid groups by artificial hybridization of Clarias gariepinus (B.) and Heterobranchus longifillis (Val.) Clariidae, using dry powdered carp pituitary hormone. Journal of Aquaculture in the Tropics, 10: 1-11.
Gogoi R., Behera S., Chetia Borah B., Bhuyan S. (2013). Sexual dimorphism and gonadal development of a rare murrel species Channa bleheri (Bleher) in Assam. The Bioscan, 8(4): 1265-1269.
Goodwin T.W. (1951). Carotenoids in fish. In: The biochemistry of fish. Biochemical Society Symposia.
Gouveia L., Rema P., Pereira O., Empis J. (2003). Colouring ornamental fish (Cyprinus carpio and Carassius auratus) with micro algal. Aquaculture Nutrition, 19: 123-129.
Gross W.L., Roelofs E.W., Fromm P.O. (1995). Influence of photoperiod on growth of green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. Journal of Fisheries Research Board Canada, 22: 1379-1386.
Ha B.S., Kang D.S., Kim J.H., Choi O.S., Ryu H.Y. (1993). Metabolism of dietary carotenoids and effects to improve the body colour of cultured flounder and red sea bream. Bulletin of the Korean Fisheries Society, 26: 91-101.
Halten B., Aas G.H., Jorgensen E.H., Storebakken T., Goswami U.C. (1995). Pigmentation of 1, 2 and 3 years old Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) fed two different dietary astaxanthin concentrations. Aquaculture, 138: 303-312.
Hardy R. (1980). Fish feed formulation, In: Fish feed Technology, Agriculture development coordination programme. FAO/ADCP/Rep. 80(1-1): 233-239.
Hata M., Hata M. (1973). Studies on astaxanthin formation in some freshwater fishes. Tohoku. Journal of Agricultural Research, 24(4): 192-196.
Jagadeesh T.D., Shivananda Murthy H., Swain H., Chetan N., Manjunatha A.R., Baglodi V. (2014). Effect of marigold oleoresin on growth, survival and pigmentation in orange chromide, Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795). Fishery Technology, 51: 25-30.
Kalinowski C.T., Robaina L.E., Fernadez-Palacios H., Schuchardt D., Izquierdo M.S. (2005). Effect of different carotenoid sources and their dietary levels on red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) growth and skin colour. Aquaculture, 244: 223-231.
Katia O. (2001). Ornamental fish trade. Infofish International, 3: 14-17.
Lovell R.I. (1992). Dietary enhancement of color in ornamental fish. Aquaculture Magazine, 18(5): 77-79.
Marelli de Souza L., Silva Ferreira K., Paes Chaves J.B., Lopes Teixeira S. (2008). L Ascorbic acid, Î²-Carotene and lycopene content in papaya fruits (Carica papaya) without physiological skin freckles. Science Agriculture, 65(3): 246-250.
Olson J.A. (1979). A simple dual assay for Vitamin A and carotenoids in human liver. Nutrition Reports International, 19: 808-813.
Pailan G.H., Sinha A., Kumar M. (2012). Rose Petals Meal as Natural Carotenoid Source in Pigmentation and Growth of Rosy Barb (Puntius conchonius). Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 29(3): 291-296.
Santhosh B., Singh N.P. (2007). Guidelines for water quality management for fish culture in Tripura, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre, Publication no. 29.
Saxena A. (1994). Health; colouration of fish. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health. University of California, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA, USA. 94 p.
Shahidi F., Metusalach A., Brown J.A. (1998). Carotenoid pigments in seafood and aquaculture. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 38: 1-67.
Sitorus A.M.S., Nurmatias Usman S. (2015). Effect of astaxanthin concentration on feed on increasing color of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Aquacoastmarine, 8(3): 10.
Silva-Garcia A.J. (1996). Growth of juvenile gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. reared under different photoperiod regimes. The Journal of Aquaculture, Bamidgeh, 48: 84-93.
Tacon A.G. (1981). Speculative review of possible carotenoids function. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 43: 205-208.
Trippel E.A., Neil S.R.E. (2002). Effect of photoperiod and light intensity on growth and activity of juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Aquaculture, 217: 633-645.
Vasudhevan I., Asokan K., Rinna Hamlin S., Rama Devi P. (2013). Feed utilization, growth parameters and coloration of different feeds in gold fish (Carassius auratus). International Journal of Research in Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 4: 1-5.
Wall M.M. (2006). Ascorbic acid, vitamin A and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 19: 434-445
Webb B.W., Hannah D.M., Moore R.D., Brown L.E., Nobilis F. (2008). Recent advances in stream and river temperature research. Hydrological Processes, 22: 902-918.