Which is a better chelating agent in beluga, Huso huso (L.), coriander, Coriandrum sativum, or active charcoal?
To compare the chelating effect of coriander, Coriandrum sativum, and active charcoal on beluga, Huso huso, a total of 270 beluga (260±2 g) were initially fed with a diet containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g of coriander and charcoal per kg of diet for 60 days. The fish were then subjected to 1 mg/L of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and copper) for seven days. The best growth and feeding performances before and after challenging with heavy metals were observed in fish fed with 15 g/kg active charcoal. Also, the best growth performance before challenging with heavy metals was observed in fish fed with 5 and 10 g/kg coriander followed by fish fed with 10 and 15 g/kg coriander after the challenging stage. The growth and nutritional efficiency were better in coriander than the charcoal treatments, especially in the pre-challenge stage. No mortalities were observed in charcoal treatments at all. While mortality occurred only in fish fed with 20 g/kg coriander in the first stage, a 100% survival rate was observed only in the second stage of fish fed with 10 g/kg coriander. In both stages of the experiment, the highest percentages of carcass protein and lipid were obtained in fish fed with 10 g/kg coriander and 15 g/kg of charcoal. Also, the lowest ash and the highest moisture were related to the control group. The amounts of protein and ash were higher in carbon treatments while the amounts of lipid and moisture were higher in coriander treatments. Minimum amounts of cadmium, copper, and lead were obtained in fish fed with 15 and 20 g/kg charcoal and coriander. The concentration of the heavy metals was significantly lower in fish fed with carbon (P<0.05). Therefore, 5-10 g/kg coriander is a better additive in low heavy metal concentration. But in an environment with a higher concentration of heavy metals, adding 15 g/kg active charcoal to beluga diet is recommended.
Aaseth J., Crisponi G., Andersen O. (2016). Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication. Academic Press of Elsevier. 388 p.
Abadi M., Zamani A., Parizanganeh A., Khosravi Y., Badiee H. (2018). Heavy metals and arsenic content in water along the southern Caspian coasts in Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 23725-23735.
Abdel- Tawwab M., El-Sayed G.O., Shady S.H. (2017a). Effect of dietary active charcoal supplementation on growth performance, biochemical and antioxidant responses and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to environmental heavy metals challenge. Aquaculture, 479: 17-24.
Abdel-Tawwab M., El-Sayed G.O., Monier M.N., Shady S.H. (2017b). Dietary EDTA supplementation improved growth performance, biochemical variables, antioxidant response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) to environmental heavy metals exposure. Aquaculture, 473: 478-486.
Abidhusen H.M, Sawapnil S.A., Amit A.G. (2012). Coriandrum sativum: Review of advances in Phytopharmacology. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, 3: 1233-1239.
Aga M., Iwaki K., Ueda Y., Ushio S., Masaki N., Fukuda S., Kimoto T., Ikeda M., Kurimoto M. (2001). Preventive effect of Coriandrum sativum (Chinese parsley) on localized lead deposition in ICR mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 77: 203-208.
Al-Asgah N.A., Abdel-Warith A.A., Younis EL.M., Allam H.Y. (2015). Hematological and biochemical parameters and tissue accumulations of cadmium in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to various concentrations of cadmium chloride. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 22: 543-550.
Ali Taneh A., Afzali N., Sarir H., Naeimi Pour H. (2016). Screening for effects of different levels of Ajowan (Carum copticum L.) and Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seeds on performance and carcass characteristics of Ross Broiler chickens. Research on Animal Production, 7: 21-32.
Asgari R., Rafiee G., Eagderi S., Shahrooz R., Poorbagher H., Agh N., Gisbert E. (2014). Ontogeny of the digestive system in hatchery produced Beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758); a comparative study between Beluga and genus Acipenser. Aquaculture Nutrition, 20(6): 595-608.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (1990). The Official Methods of Analyses Association of Official Analytical Chemists International. 15th edition, Arlington, VA, 2220, United Nation.
Bhat S., Kaushal P., Kaur M., Sharma H.K. (2014). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): Processing, nutritional and functional aspects. African Journal of Plant Science, 8: 25-33.
Boonanuntanasarn S., Khaomek P., Pitaksong T., Hua Y. (2014). The effects of the supplementation of activated charcoal on the growth, health status and ï¬llet composition-odor of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) before harvesting. Aquaculture International, 22: 1417-1436.
Bradley R.H., Sutherland I., Sheng E. (1996). Carbon surface: Area, porosity, chemistry, and energy. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 179: 561-569.
Chebanov M.S., Galich E.V. (2013). Sturgeon Hatchery Manual. FAO Technical Paper. Ankara. 279 p.
Ghazanfari Sh., Mohammad Z. (2015). Dietary different levels of coriander essential oil for broilers: Effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics and blood immune parameters. Experimental Animal Biology, 4: 21-30.
Gisbert E., Asgari R., Rafiee G., Agh N., Eagderi, Eshaghzadeh H., Alcaraz C. (2014). Early development and allometric growth patterns of beluga Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 30(6): 1264-1272.
Hoseini S.M., Hoseini S.A., Soudagar M. (2013). Effect of dietary free L-Lysine on growth performance and muscle composition of Beluga Huso huso (Linnaeus 1785) juveniles. International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 2013(2): 42-47.
Hosseinzadeh H., Alaw Qotbi A.A., Seidavi A., Norris D., Brown D. (2014). Effects of Different Levels of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Seed Powder and Extract on Serum Biochemical Parameters, Microbiota, and Immunity in Broiler Chicks. The Scientific World Journal, 11 p.
Jia H., Ren H., Endo H., Hayashi T. (2009). Effect of Chinese parsley Coriandrum sativum on cadmium binding to proteins from the liver and kidney of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 42: 187-199.
Kansal L., Sharma V., Sharma A., Lodi Sh., Sharma S.H. (2011). Protective role of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) extracts against lead nitrate induced oxidative stress and tissue damage in the liver and kidney in male mice. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2: 65-83.
Kubo I., Fujita K.I., Kubo A., Nihei K.I., Ogura T. (2004). Antibacterial Activity of Coriander Volatile Compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52: 3329-3332.
Kumari P., Chandramoni Kumar K., Kumar S. (2014). Effect of dietary supplement of sugar beet, neem leaf, linseed and coriander on growth performance and carcass trait of Vanaraja chicken. Veterinary World, 7: 639-43.
Mandal Sh., Mandal M. (2015). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: Chemistry and biological activity. Asian Paciï¬c Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 5: 421-428.
Michael F.R., Saleh N.E., Shalaby S.M., Sakr E.M., Abdel- Khalek D.E., Abdel-Monem A.I. (2017). Effect of different dietary levels of commercial wood charcoal on growth, body composition and environmental loadings of red hybrid tilapia. Aquaculture Nutrition, 23: 210-216.
Mirzaei A., Khatami R. (2013). The antioxidant and iron-chelating activity of Coriandrum sativum and Petroselinum crispum. Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 2: 27-31.
Mirzavand M., Rahimi Sh., Sahari M.A. (2015). Evaluation of the effects of mint, parsley, dill, coriander, garlic and basil on broiler performance, blood factors, immune system, intestinal morphology and taste of meat. Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 31: 446-459.
Nicula M., Dumitrescu G., Pacala N., Stef L., Tulcan C., Dragomirescu M., Bencsik I., Patruica S., Dronca D., Petculescu-Ciochina L., Simiz E., Pet I., Marcu A., Caraba I. (2016). Garlic, cilantro and chlorella's effect on kidney histoarchitecture changes in Cd-intoxicated Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio). Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 49: 168-177.
NRC (National Research Council) (1993). Nutrient Requirements of Fish. Committee on Animal Nutrition. Board on Agriculture. National Research Council. National Academy Press. Washington DC, United State.
Okoye B.C.O. (1991). Heavy metals and organisms in the Lagos Lagoon. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 37: 285-292.
Parizanganeh A., Lakhan V.Ch. (2007). A survey of heavy metal concentrations in the surface sediments along the Iranian coast of the Caspian Sea. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 63: 2-12.
Pirarat N., Boonananthanasarn S., Krongpong L., Katagiri T., Maita M. (2015). Effect of activated charcoal-supplemented diet on growth performance and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 45: 113-119.
Pish Jang J. (2011). Effect of different levels of coriander oil on performance and blood parameters of Broiler chickens. Journal of Animal and Biological Research, 2: 578-583.
Ramakrishna R.R., Platel K., Srinivasan K. (2003). In vitro influence of species and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine. Food Nahrung, 47: 408-412.
Ren H., Jia H., Kim S., Maita M., Sato S., Yasui M., Endo H., Hayashi T. (2006). Effect of Chinese parsley Coriandrum sativum and chitosan on inhibiting the accumulation of cadmium in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science, 72: 263-269.
Ren H., Endo H., Jia H., Hayashi T. (2009). Cadmium detoxification effect of Chinese parsley Coriandrum sativum in liver and kidney of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science, 75: 731-741.
Ren H., Jia H., Suzuki H., Nagae Y., Endo H. (2013). Effects of Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum on oral cadmium-induced micronucleus formation in mice. Food Science and Technology Research, 19: 263-268.
Saeedi Saravi S.S., Shokrzade M. (2013). Heavy metals contamination in water and three species of most consumed fish sampled from the Caspian Sea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185: 10333-10337.
Saghali M., Hoseini S.M., Hoseini S.A., Baqraf R. (2014). Determination of heavy metal (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr) concentration in benthic fauna tissues collected from the Southeast Caspian Sea, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 92: 57-60.
Tellez-Lopez M.A., Mora-Tovar G., Ceniceros-Méndez I.M., García-Lujan C., Puente-Valenzuela C.O., Vega-Menchaca M.C., Serrano-Gallardo L.B., García Garza R., Morán-Martínez R. (2017). Evaluation of the chelating effect of methanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum and its fractions on Wistar rats poisoned with lead acetate. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, Alternative Medicines, 14:92-102.
Thu M., Koshio S., Ishikawa M., Yokoyama S. (2010). Effects of supplementation of dietary bamboo charcoal on growth performance and body composition of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 41: 255-262.
Wangensteen H., Samuelsen A.B., Malterud K.E. (2004). Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander. Food Chemistry, 88: 293-297.
Yoo J.H., Ji S.C., Jeong G.S. (2005). Effect of dietary charcoal and wood vinegar mixture (CV82) on body composition of olive ï¬‚ounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 36: 203-208.