The skeletal deformity in response of dietary phosphorus and calcium level in the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) larvae

Sohrab Ahmadivand, Soheil Eagderi, Mohammad Reza Imanpour


Skeletal deformities are a common problem in fish hatcheries and commercial farms that affect growth, development and survival as well as the market value of the final product. Among the nutritional components, phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) are of special interest as they are directly involved in the development and maintenance of the skeletal system. Hence, the present study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary P and Ca on the skeletal deformity, growth and carcass composition the Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus caspicus) larvae. In this study, six semi-purified diets were formulated. The diets A, B, C, D and E were supplemented with 0.0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% available P supplied as a 1:1mixture of NaH2Po4/KH2Po4. These five diets were supplemented with 1% Ca, supplied as CaCo3. Diets F was Ca-free and supplemented with 0.8% available P served as control level of P. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish, and each group was stocked with 30 larvae and fed three times a day for 60 days. At the end experiment, there was no significant effect of dietary P (0 to 1.6%) or Ca (0 or 1%) supplementation on growth performance such as weight gain and FCR, carcass moisture, P and Ca. However, a significant difference found between treatments in carcass ash. Analysis of length, height and area of vertebrae in two regions of the vertebral column showed no significant difference between the dietary treatments. The skeletal abnormalities were highest incidence in the Caspian roach fed with a low P. Kyphosis placement of vertebrae was the most frequent abnormality.


Skeletal deformity, Caspian roach, Phosphorus, Calcium.

Full Text:



Andrews J.W., Murai T., Campbell C. (1973). Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on growth, food conversion, bone ash and haematocrit levels of catfish. Journal of Nutrition, 103: 766-771.

Baeverfjord G., Asgad T., Shearer K.D. (1998). Development and detection of phosphorus deficiency in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L., parr and post-smolts. Aquaculture Nutrition, 4: 1-11.

Beattie J.H., Avenell A. (1992). Trace element nutrition and bone metabolism. Nutrition Research Reviews, 5: 167-188.

Brown M.L., Jaramillo F., Gatlin D.M. (1993). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile sunshine bass, Morone chrysops ♀ × M. saxatilis ♂. Aquaculture, 113: 355-363.

Cahu C., Zambonino-Infante J.L. (2003). Nutritional components affecting skeletal development in fish larvae. Aquaculture, 227: 245-258.

Duncan D.B. (1955). Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.

Fontagné S., Silva N., Bazin D., Ramos A., Aguirre P., Surget A., Abrantes A., Kaushik S.J., Power D.M. (2009). Effects of dietary phosphrus and calcium level on growth and skeletal development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Aquaculture, 297: 141-150.

Helland S., Refstie S., Espmark A., Hjelde K., Baeverfjord G. (2005). Mineral balance and bone formation in fast-growing Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar) in response to dissolved metabolic carbon dioxide and restricted dietary phosphorus supply. Aquaculture, 250: 364-376.

Kiabi B.H., Abdoli A., Naderi M. (1999). Status of the fish fauna in the south Caspian Basin of Iran. Zoology in Middle East, 18: 57-65.

Koumoundouros G., Divanach P., Kentouri M. (2001). The effect of rearing conditions on development of saddleback syndrome and caudal fin deformities in Dentex dentex (L.). Aquaculture 200: 285-304

Lall S.P. (2002). The minerals. In: Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. (Eds.), Fish Nutrition, 3rd ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 259-308.

Lall S.P., Lewis-Mccrea L.M. (2007). Role of nutrients in skeletal metabolism and pathology in fish. Aquaculture, 267: 3-19.

Nwanna L.C., Adebayo I.A., Omitoyin B. (2008). Effect of different levels of phosphorus on growth and mineralization in African giant at fish Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffrey Saint Hillarie, 1809). Environmental Management, 12: 25-32.

Roy P.K., Lall S.P. (2003). Dietary phosphorus requirement of juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.). Aquaculture, 221: 451-468.

Sadler J., Pankhurst P.M., King H.R. (2001). High prevalence of skeletal deformity and reduced gill surface area in triploid Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Aquaculture, 198: 369-386

Sauveur B., Perez J.M. (1987). Mineral nutrition of nonruminants. In: Feeding of non-ruminant livestock (translated and ed. by J. Wiseman), pp. 19-25. Butterworth and Co. Ltd, London.

Sfakianakis D.G., Georgakopoulou E., Papadakis I., Divanach P., Kentouri M., Koumoundouros G. (2006). Environmental determinants of haemal lordosis in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758). Aquaculture, 254: 54-64

Tacon A.G. (1992). Nutritional fish pathology. Morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper, vol. 330. FAO, Rome, Italy. 75 pp.

Uyan O., Koshio S., Ishikawa M., Uyan S., Ren T., Yokoyama S., Komilus C.F., Michael F.R. (2007). Effects of dietary phosphorus and phospholipid level on growth, andphosphorus deficiency signs in juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture, 267: 44-54.

Vielma J., Lall S.P. (1998). Phosphorus utilization by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in freshwater is not influenced by higher dietary calcium intake. Aquaculture, 160: 117-128.

Wallach S. (2002). Disorders of skeleton and kidney stones. In: Bedrdanier C.D. (Ed.), Handbook of Nutrition and Food. CRC Press, Florida, USA, pp. 1275-1289.


  • There are currently no refbacks.