Interaction of fish density and background color effects on growth performance, proximate body composition and skin color of common carp, Cyprinus carpio
This study was carried out to evaluate the combined effects of three stocking densities and two tank colors on growth, body composition and skin coloration of common carp (1.41±0.05 g). Fish with low (LD: 20 specimens/tank or 0.70 g/L), medium (MD: 40 specimens/tank or 1.41 g/L) and high (HD: 80 specimens/tank or 2.82 g/L) densities were reared in two tank colors (black and white) for 45 days. At the end of the experiment, density recorded 2.45 g/L and 7.00 g/L at low and high densities treatments, respectively. The final weight and specific growth rate of the fish at LD treatment were significantly higher than those of MD and HD treatments. The highest weight (4.90±0.44 g) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.21±0.13) were obtained for the LD fish treatment reared in the black tanks. Rearing density has a significant effect on the fish body total protein content, but the tank color had no effects on this factor. The fish body lipid content in the white tanks and high density was significantly higher than other treatments. Significant interactions between tank color and rearing density were observed for the fish body protein, fiber and dry matter. The fish skin color was considered by three factors: L*, a* and b*. The results showed that black color had a negative effect on the fish skin color indices. Brightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values of the fish skin in the white tanks were higher than those of the black tanks. In the present study, tank color and rearing density significantly affected growth and feed performance of common carp, while no combined interaction was found between the two factors examined.
Abdel-Tawwab M. (2012). Effects of dietary protein levels and rearing density on growth performance and stress response of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). International Aquatic Research, 4(3): 1-13.
Abdel-Tawwab M., Hagras A.E., Elbaghdady H.A.M., Monier M.N. (2014). Dissolved oxygen level and stocking density effects on growth, feed utilization, physiology, and innate immunity of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 26(4): 340-355."
Akbarian H., Alaf Navirian H., Bani A., Falahatkar B. (2012). Effects of tank color on growth performance and body composition of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in cultural condition. Journal of Utilization and Cultivation of Aquatics, 1(2): 19-30.
Ali A., Al-Asgah N.A. (2001). Effect of feeding different carbohydrate to lipid ratios on the growth performance and body composition of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Animal Research, 50: 91-100
Aly H.A., Abdel-Rahim M.M., Lotfy A.M., Abdelaty B.S. (2017). Impact of different colors of artificial light on pigmentation and growth performance of hybrid Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mosambicusí— O. hornorum) reared in saline well water. Journal of Marine Science: Research and Development, 7(229): 2."
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists). (1995). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis, 16th edn. Arlington, VA, USA. Press, New York.
Ashley P.J. (2007). Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104: 199-235.
Barus V., Peaz M., Kohlmann K. (2001). Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758). In: P.M. Banarescu, H.J. Paepke (Eds.). The freshwater fishes of Europe, v. 5/III; Cyprinidae 2/III, and Gasterosteidae. Germany: AULA-G GmbH Wiebelsheim. pp: 85-179.
Biswas A.K., Seoka M., Takii K., Kumai H. (2007). Comparison of apparent digestibility coefficient among replicates and different stocking density in red sea bream Pagrus major. Fisheries science, 73(1): 19-26."
Biswas J.K., Sarkar P., Chakraborty P., Bhakta J.N., Jana B.B. (2006). Density dependent ambient ammonium as the key factor for optimization of stocking density of common carp in small tanks. Aquaculture, 261: 952-959.
Brannas E., Alanara A., Magnhagen C. (2001). The social behavior of fish. In: L.J. Keeling, H.W. Gonyou (Eds.). Social Behaviour in Farm Animals. CABI publishing, New York. 275-304.
Brännäs E., Alanärä A., Magnhagen C. (2001). The social behavior of fish. In: L.J. Keeling, H.W. Gonyou (Eds.). Social Behaviour in Farm Animals, CABI publishing, New York, USA pp: 275-304.
Braun N., Lima de Lima R., Baldisserotto B., Dafre A.L., Pires de Oliveira Nuñer A. (2010). Growth, biochemical and physiological responses of Salminus brasiliensis with different stocking densities and handling. Aquaculture, 301: 22-30.
Clement T.S., Parikh V., Schrumpf M., Fernald R.D. (2005). Behavioral coping strategies in a cichlid fish: the role of social status and acute stress response in direct and displaced aggression. Hormones and Behavior, 47: 336- 342.
El-Sayed A.M., El-Ghobashy A.E. (2010). Effects of tank color and feed color on growth and body composition of thin lip grey mullet (Liza ramada) fry. Aquaculture Research, 1163-1169.
Enache I., Cristea V., Ionescu T., Ion S. (2011). The influence of stocking density on the growth of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, in a recirculating aquaculture system. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation-International Journal of the Bioflux Society (AACL Bioflux), 4(2): 146-153."
FAO. (2017). Fishstate plus: Universal software for fishery statistical time series (available at: www.fao.org/fi/ statist/fisoft/fishplus.asp).
Fernandez P.J., Bagnara J.T. (1991). Effect of background color and low temperature on skin color and circulating alpha-MSH in two species of leopard frog. General and Comparative Endocrinal, 83: 132-141.
Fujii R. (1993). Coloration and chromatophores. In: D.H. Evans (Ed.). The Physiology of Fishes. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp: 535-562.
Gang L., Hongxin T., Guozhi L., Chuan S.D. (2010). Effect of density on Scortum barcoo (McCulloch & Waite) juvenile performance in circular tanks. Aquaculture Research, 41(12): 1898-1904."
Ginés R., Afonso J.M., Argí¼ello A., Zamorano M.J., López J.L. (2004). The effects of long"day photoperiod on growth, body composition and skin colour in immature gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.). Aquaculture Research, 35(13): 1207-1212."
Goda M., Fujii R. (1995). Blue chromatophores in two species of callionymid fish. Zoological Science, 12: 811-3.
Haga Y., Takeuchi T., Seikai T. (2002). Influence of all-trans retinoic acid on pigmentation and skeletal formation in larval Japanese flounder. Fisheries Science, 68: 560-570.
Han D., Xie S.H., Lei W., Zhu X., Yang Y. (2005). Effect of light intensity on growth, survival and skin color of juvenile Chinese long snout catfish (Leiocassis longirostris Gí¼nther). Aquaculture, 248: 299-306.
Imanpoor M.R., Abdollahi M. (2011). Effects of tank color on growth, stress response and skin color of juvenile Caspian kutum Rtilus frisii Kutum. Global Veterinaria, 6(2): 118-125."
Jha P., Barat S. (2005). The effect of stocking density on growth, survival rate, and number of marketable fish produced of koi carps, Cyprinus carpio, in concrete tanks. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 17: 89-102.
Jirsa D., Drawbridge M., Stuart K. (2009). The effects of tank color and light intensity on growth, survival, and stress tolerance of White Sea bass, Atractoscion nobilis, larvae. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 40(5): 702-709."
Kang D.Y., Kim H.C. (2013). Influence of density and background color to stress response, appetite, growth, and blind-side hyper melanosis of flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Fish physiology and biochemistry, 39(2): 221-232."
Karakatsouli M., Papoutsoglou S., Manolessos E. (2007). Combined effects of rearing density and tank colour on the growth and welfare of juvenile White Sea bream (Diplodus sargus) in a recirculating water system. Aquaculture Research, 38: 1152-1160.
Karakatsouli N., Papoutsoglou E.S., Sotiropoulos N., Mourtikas D., Stigen-Martinsen T., Papoutsoglou S.E. (2010). Effects of light spectrum, rearing density and light intensity on growth performance of scaled and mirror common carp Cyprinus carpio reared under recirculating system conditions. Aquacultural Engineering, 42(3): 121-127."
Kohinoor A.H.M., Rahman M.M. (2014). Preliminary study on the production of common carp cultured in freshwater river cages. International Journal of Agricultural Research, Innovation and Technology, 4(1): 24-27."
Leclercq E., Taylor J.F., Migaud H. (2010). Morphological skin colour changes in teleosts. Fish and Fisheries, 11: 159-93.
Liu Q., Hou Z., Wen H., Li J., He F., Wang J., Wang Q. (2016). Effect of stocking density on water quality and Growth, Body Composition and Plasma Cortisol Content performance of pen-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Ocean University of China, 15(4): 667-675."
Maan M.E., Sefc K.M. (2013). Colour variation in cichlid fish: developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences. In Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, 24(7): 516-528.
Manjappa K., Keshavanath P., Gangadhara B. (2011). Influence of sardine oil supplemented fish meal free diets on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) growth, carcass composition and digestive enzyme activity. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 6: 604-613.
Mesa M.G., Schreck C.B. (1989). Electro fishing mark-recapture and depletion methodologies evoke behaviour and physiological changes in cutthroat trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 118: 644-658.
North B.P., Ellis T., Turnbull J.F., Davis J., Bromage N.R. (2006). Stocking density practices of commercial UK rainbow trout farms. Aquaculture, 259: 260-267.
North B.P., Ellis T., Turnbull J.F., Davis J., Bromage N.R. (2006). Stocking density practices of commercial UK rainbow trout farms. The centre for environment, fisheries and aquaculture science, Weymouth laboratory, the nothe, Weymouth, dorset, UK. Elsevier, 10(3): 141-142.
Nuwansi K.K.T., Verma A.K., Tiwari V.K., Prakash C., Chandrakant M.H. (2017). Standardization of the stocking density ratios of koi carp (Cyprinus carpio var. koi): Goldfish (Carassius auratus) in polyculture aquaponic recirculating system. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 17(6): 1271-1278."
Oprea L., Mocanu M.C., Vanghelie T., Sandu P.G., Dediu L. (2015). The influence of stocking density on growth performance, feed intake and production of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., at one summer of age, in ponds aquaculture systems. AACL Bioflux, 8(5): 632-639."
Papoutsoglou E.S., Mylonakis G., Miliou H. (2000). Effects of background color on growth performance and physiological responses of scaled carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in a closed circulated system. Aquaculture Engineering, 22: 309-318.
Papoutsoglou S.E., Karakatsouli N., Chiras G. (2005). Dietary Ltryptophan and tank colour effects on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles reared in a recirculating system. Aquacultural Engineering, 32: 277-284.
Rahman M.M., Verdegem M.C.J., Nagelkerke L.A.J., Wahab M.A., Verreth J.A.J. (2008). Swimming, grazing and social behaviour of rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.) in tanks under fed and non-fed conditions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 113: 255-264.
Rotllant J., Tort L., Montero D., Pavlidis M.l., Martinez S.E., Wendelaar B., Balm P.H.M. (2003). Background colour influense on the stress response in cultured red porgy (Pagrus pagrus). Aquaculture, 223: 129.139.
Soltani M., Sheikhzadeh N., Ebrahimzadeh-Mousavi H.A., Zargar A. (2010). Effects of Zataria multiflora essential oil on innate immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 5: 191-199.
Strand A., Alanara A., Staffan F., Magnhagen C. (2007). Effects of tank colour and light intensity of feed intake, growth rate and energy expenditure of juvenile Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Aquaculture, 272: 312-318.
Szisch V., Van der Salm A.L., Wendelaar Bonga S.E.M., Pavlidis M. (2002). Physiological colour changes in the red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, following adaptation to blue lighting spectrum. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 27: 1-8.
Tan C., Sun D., Tan H., Liu W., Luo G., Wei X. (2018). Effects of stocking density on growth, body composition, digestive enzyme levels and blood biochemical parameters of Anguilla marmorata in a recirculating aquaculture system. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1): 9-16."
Van der Salm A.L., Martinez M., Flik G., Wendelaar Bonga S.E. (2004). Effects of husbandry conditions on the skin colour and stress response of red porgy (Pagrus pagrus). Aquaculture, 241: 371-386.
Yang D.G., Zhu Y.J., Luo Y.P., Zhao J.H., Chen J.W. (2011). Effect of stocking density on growth performance of juvenile Amur Sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii). Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27(2): 541-544."
Zhu Y.J., Yang D.G., Chen J.W., Yi J.F., Liu W.C., Zhao J.H. (2011). An evaluation of stocking density in the cage culture efficiency of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 27(2): 545-549.