Effects of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) extract on serum antibacterial activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus iniae and Yersinia ruckeri

Ashkan Zargari, Mohammad Mazandarani, Seyyed Morteza Hoseini

Abstract

In the present study, the effects of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) extract on serum antibacterial activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against Aeromonas hydrophila, Streptococcus iniae and Yersinia ruckeri was studied. In this regard, 450 fish with average weight of 100±10 g were stocked into fifteen fiberglass tanks. This experiment consisted of 3 treatment groups (received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW safflower extract via IP injection), one positive control group (just received normal saline) and one negative control group (with no injection). Blood samples were taken at the 3th, 7th and 10th days after the injections, and antibacterial activity of serum were determined in vitro using CFU method. The results showed that safflower extract injection had no significant effects on serum anti-bacterial activity against A. hydrophyla and Y. rukeri during 10 days post injection. However, in the fish receiving 100 mg/kg safflower extract, serum bactericidal activity against S. iniae was significantly higher than the other groups. This study demonstrated that safflower extract at the doses of 50-200 mg/kg via IP injection did not cause significant changes in serum antibacterial activity against A. hydrophila and Y. ruckeri, but injection of 100 mg/kg extract led to an increase in the serum antibacterial activity against S. iniae, in rainbow trout.

Keywords

Antibacterial activity, Safflower, Serum, Injection.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Agnew W., Barnes A.C. (2007). Streptococcus iniae: an aquatic pathogen of global veterinary significance and a challenging candidate for reliable vaccination. Veterinary Microbiology, 122(1): 1-15.

Al-Snafi A.E. (2015). The chemical constituents and pharmacological importance of Carthamus tinctorius – An overview. Pharmaceutical Biology, 5(3): 143-166.

Al-Snafi A.E. (2016). Immunological effects of medicinal plants: a review (Part 2). Immunology, Endocrine and Metabolic Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 16: 1-22.

Aoki T., Takami K., Kitao T. (1990). Drug resistance in nonhemolytic streptococcus sp. Isolation from cultured yellow tail. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 8: 171-177.

Asgary S., Rahimi P., Mahzouni P., Madani H. (2012). Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 17(4): 386-92.

Austin B., Austin D.A. (2007). Characteristics of the diseases. Bacterial Fish Pathogens: Diseases of Farmed and Wild Fish, pp: 15-46.

Choi E.M., Kim G.H., Lee Y.S. (2010). Carthamus tinctorius flower extract prevents H2O2‐induced dysfunction and oxidative damage in osteoblastic MC3T3‐E1 cells. Phytotherapy Research, 24(7): 1037-1041.

Dadras H., Hayatbakhsh M.R., Shelton W.L., Golpour A. (2016). Effects of dietary administration of Rose hip and Safflower on growth performance, haematological, biochemical parameters and innate immune response of Beluga, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 59: 109-114.

Davies R.L., Frerichs G.N. (1989). Morphological and biochemical differences among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri obtained from wide geographical areas. Journal of Fish Diseases, 12: 357-365.

Dodson S.V., Maurer J.J., Shotts, E.B. (1999). Biochemical and molecular typing of Streptococcus iniae isolated from fish and human cases. Journal of Fish Diseases, 22(5): 331-336.

Fan L., Zhao H.Y., Xu M., Zhou L., Guo H., Han J., Wang B.R., Guo D.A. (2009). Qualitative evaluation and quantitative determination of 10 major active components in Carthamus tinctorius L. by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(11): 2063-2070.

Harikrishnan R., Balasundaram C., Kim M.C., Kim J.S., Han Y.J., Heo M.S. (2009). Innate immune response and disease resistance in Carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 27(3): 508-515.

Khushiramani R., Girisha S.K., Karunasagar I., Karunasagar I. (2007). Cloning and expression of an outer membrane protein ompTS of Aeromonas hydrophila and study of immunogenicity in fish. Protein expression and purification, 51(2): 303-307.

Li L., Yang Y., Hou X., Gu D., Ba H., Abdulla R., Wu G., Xin X., Aisa H.A. (2013). Bioassay-guided separation and purification of water-soluble antioxidants from Carthamus tinctorius L. by combination of chromatographic techniques. Separation and Purification Technology, 104: 200-207.

Louei Monfared A., Salat A.P. (2012). The effects of Carthamus tinctorius L. on placental histomorphology and survival of the neonates in mice. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, 2(3): 146-152.

Lowry T., Smith S.A. (2007). Aquatic zoonoses associated with food, bait, ornamental, and tropical fish. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 231(6): 876-800.

Moyer N.P. (1987). Clinical significance of Aeromonas species isolated from patients with diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 25: 2044-2048.

Poobalane S., Thompson K.D., Ardó L., Verjan N., Han H.J., Jeney G., Hirono I., Aoki T., Adams A. (2010). Production and efficacy of an Aeromonas hydrophila recombinant S-layer protein vaccine for fish. Vaccine, 28(20): 3540-3547.

Reverter M., Bontemps N., Lecchini D., Banaigs B., Sasal P. (2014). Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, 433: 50-61.

Sahoo P.K., Rauta P.R., Mohanty B.R., Mahapatra K.D., Saha J.N., Rye M., Eknath A.E. (2011). Selection for improved resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Indian major carp Labeo rohita: Survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 31(3): 432-438.

Sahu S., Das B.K., Mishra B.K., Pradhan J., Samal S.K., Sarangi N. (2008). Effect of dietary Curcuma longa on enzymatic and immunological profiles of rohu, Labeo rohita (Ham.), infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture Research, 39(16): 1720-1730.

Soltani M., Shafiei S., Mirzargar S.S., Musavi H.A.E., Ghodratnama M. (2014). Study of efficacy of vaccination against yersinosis in rainbow trout using local strains of Yersinia ruckeri. Journal of Veterinary Research, 69(1): 57-63.

Velag J., Studlla G. (2005). The Medicinal Plants, Persian Translation by Zaman S 6th Editation. Tehran. Naghsh Iran publication. 370 p.

Villa C., Costa J., Oliveira M.B.P., Mafra I. (2017). Novel quantitative real-time PCR approach to determine safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) adulteration in saffron (Crocus sativus). Food Chemistry, 229: 680-687.

Weinstein M.R., Litt M., Kertesz D.A., Wyper P., Rose D., Coulter M., McGeer A., Facklam R., Ostach C., Willey B.M., Borczyk A. (1997). Invasive infections due to a fish pathogen, Streptococcus iniae. S. iniae study group. New England Journal of Medicine, 337: 589-594.

Xia C., Ma Z.H., Rahman M.H., Wu Z.G. (2004). PCR cloning and identification of the β-haemolysin gene of Aeromonas hydrophila from freshwater fishes in China. Aquaculture, 229(1): 45-53.

Zhou L., Wang X., Liu Q., Wang Q., Zhao Y., Zhang Y. (2010). A novel multivalent vaccine based on secretary antigen-delivery induces protective immunity against Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila. Journal of Biotechnology, 146(1): 25-30.

Zhou X., Tang L., Xu Y., Zhou G., Wang Z. (2014). Towards a better understanding of medicinal uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. in traditional Chinese medicine: a phytochemical and pharmacological review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151(1): 27-43.

Zorriehzahra M.J., Daud H.H.M., Nazari A., Gholizadeh M., Farahi A. (2012). Assessment of environmental factors effects on enteric red mouth disease occurrence in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Hamedan province, Iran. Journal of Comparative Clinical Pathology Research, 3: 79-85.

Zorrilla I., Chabrillon M., Arijo S., Dıaz-Rosales P., Martınez-Manzanares E., Balebona M.C., Morinigo M.A. (2003). Bacteria recovered from diseased cultured gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) in southwestern Spain. Aquaculture, 218(1): 11-20.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.