Helminth parasites fauna of the green toad, Bufo variabilis, Laurenti, 1768 (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Fars Province, Iran

Ehsan Rakhshandehroo, Amin Ahmadi, Zahra Asadollahi

Abstract

The green toad, Bufo variabilis has been a common species of toads in Iran with a wide distribution in most provinces. The main goal of this study was to determine the helminth parasite fauna of B. variabilis in southwest of Iran. Among 30 toads inspected for helminth infection from different sites, 100% harbored one or more parasite species. Some toads were afflicted by intestinal obstruction, due to the infection with a large number of cestodes. Twenty-eight cases (93%) had mixed infection with cestodes (in intestine) and nematodes (in lung). Also, a toad was infected with a single monogenean parasite in its urinary bladder. The identified helminth parasites were monogenean, Polystoma viridis; cestode, Nematotaenia dispar and a species of nematode, Rhabdias ranae. This study reports for the first time the presence of nematode species R. ranae in B. variabilis in Iran.

Keywords

Bufo variabilis, Parasite infection, green toad, Polystoma spp., Nematotaenia spp., Rhabdias ranae.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Baloutch M., Kami H.G. (2007). Amphibians of Iran. Tehran University Publications, Tehran. 177 p.

Combes C., Knoepffler L.P. (1972). Helminthes parasites de Rana ridibunda ridibunda Pallas, 1771 sur les rives Iraniennes de la MerCaspienne. Vie et Milieu / Life and Environment, 2: 329-334.

Degani D., Goldberg T., Gasith A., Elron E., Nevo E. (2013). DNA variations of the green toad Pseudepidalea viridis (syn. B. variabilis) from various habitats. Zoological Studies, 52: 1-15.

Derakhshan Z., Nokhbatolfoghahai M. (2015). Thermal tolerance limits and effects of temperature on the growth and development of the green toad, Bufotes viridis. Salamandra, 51:129-136.

Dusen S. (2011). The helminth parasites of the two bufonid toads, European common toad, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758) and European Green toad, Bufo (Pseudepidalea) viridis Laurenti, 1768 (Anura: Bufonidae), collected from Denizli Province, Inner-West Anatolia Region, Turkey. Helminthologia, 48:101-107.

Khalil L.F., Jones A., Bray R.A. (1994). Keys to the cestode parasites of vertebrates. Wallingford, Oxon, CAB International.

Kuzmin Y. (2005). The Description of Rhabdias globocephala (Nematoda, Rhabdiasidae) from the new host Buergeria pollicaris (Amphibia, Rhacophoridae). Vestnik Zoologii, 39: 9-14.

Mashaii N., Balouch M., Mobedi I. (2008). A report about helminth parasites of Some Amphibians (Anura: Ranidae, Bufonidae) from the North and Northeast of Iran. Journal of Science and Technology, 33: 9-13.

Mashaii N. (2005). Helminth parasites of green toad, B. variabilis (Anura: Bufonidae); tree frog, Hylaarborea savignyi (Anura: Hylidae) and marsh frog, Rana ridibunda ridibunda (Anura: Ranidae) from southwest of Iran. Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research, 6: 67-73.

Mashaii N., Balouch M., Mobedi I. (2000). New records about helminth parasites of the marsh frog, Rana ridibunda ridibunda (Anura: Ranidae), from the north of Iran. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 2: 77-88.

Mashaii N. (1999). New records of trematode parasites (Digenea) in the banded frog, Rana camerani and marsh frog, Rana ridibunda ridibunda (Anura: Ranidae), from Southwest of Iran. Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 1: 41-47.

Massoud J., Farahnak A. (1994). Study on heterophid trematodes in Khuzestan, Southwest of Iran. Abs. 8th Inter. Cong. Parasi., Izmir, Turkey. 2: 363.

Mohammad K.M., Azhar A.A.M., Suhad Y.J. (2010). Helminth Parasites of the Green toad B. variabilis Laurenti, 1768 in Baghdad Area, Central Iraq. Egyptian Academic Journal of Biological Sciences, 2: 17-25.

Prudhoe B.Y.S., Bray R.A. (1982).Platyhelminth parasites of the Amphibia. Oxford University Press, Oxford, and British Museum (Natural History), London. 217 p.

Saeed I., Al-Barwari S., Al-Harmni K.I. (2007). A metazoan parasitological research of some Iraqi amphibians. Turkish Journal of Parasitology, 31: 337-345.

Stock M., Frynta D., Grosse W.R., Steinlein C., Schmid M. (2001). A review of the distribution of the diploid, triploid and tetraploid green toads (Bufo viridis complex) in Asia including new data from Iran and Pakistan. Asian Herpetological Research, 9: 77-100.

Vashetko E.V., Siddikov B.H. (1999). The effect of the ecology of toads on the distribution of helminths. Zoological Studies, 23: 107-110.

Yamaguti S. (1959). Systema Helminthum. Vol II. The Cestodes of Vertebrates. New York & London, Interscience Publishers. 860 p.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.