The effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) supplementations on growth performance and some innate immune responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Hadis Mansouri Taee, Abdolmajid Hajimoradloo, Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar, Hassan Ahmadvand

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) powder on the growth performance, immune responses and haematological parameters of rainbow trout fingerlings. Twelve cages were assigned to four treatments in triplicate and thirty fish (6.50±0.55g (were stocked. Treatments were different levels 0 (control), 0.5 (M0.5), 1 (M1) and 1.5% (M1.5) of Myrtle powder. The highest weight gain and specific growth rate and lowest feed conversion ratio were observed in fish fed with 1% Myrtle. The RBC, WBC and haematocrit were higher in the Myrtle fed treatments compared to the control group. The results showed increased total protein in M1.5 and M1 treatments compared with the control and M0.5 treatment. Also, the highest and lowest albumin were observed in M1.5 treatment and control group. Furthermore, serum ALP decreased along with the increasing Myrtle levels in diet, and lowest level was observed in M1 treatment. Lysozyme activity increased with increasing dietary Myrtle inclusion levels, although no significant difference was noticed when compared with control. These results revealed the potential growth enhancing and health promoting effects of Myrtle powder.

Keywords

Medical herbs, Immunostimulant, Innate immune responses, Bioactive.

Full Text:

PDF

References

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). (2014). The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 243 p.

Mona M.H., Rizk E.S.T., Salama W.M., Younis M.L. (2015). Efficacy of probiotics, prebiotics, and immunostimulant on growth performance and immunological parameters of Procambarus clarkii juveniles. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology, 69: 17-25.

Hoseinifar S.H., Mirvaghefi A., Amoozegar M.A., Sharifian M., Esteban M.A. (2015). Modulation of innate immune response, mucosal parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) upon synbiotic feeding. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 45: 27-32.

Dawood M.A.O., Koshio S. (2016). Recent advances in the role of probiotics in carp aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture, 454: 243-251.

Barman D., Nen P., Mandal S.C., Kumar V. (2013). Aquaculture health management: A new approach. Marine Science Research and Development, 3: 1-11.

Wang W., Sun J., Liu C., Xue Z. (2016). Application of immunostimulants in aquaculture: current knowledge and future perspectives. Aquaculture Research, 48: 1-23.

Bairwa M.K., Jitender K.J., Satyanarayana Y., Devivaraprasad Reddy A. (2012). Animal and plant originated immunostimulants used in aquaculture. Journal of Natural Product and Plant Resources, 2: 397-400.

Asadi M.S., Mirvaghefei A.R., Nematollahi M.A., Banaee M., Ahmadi K. (2012). Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Open Veterinary Journal, 2: 32-39.

Haghighi M., Sharif Rohani M., Samadi M., Tavoli M., Eslami M., Yusefi R. (2014). Study of effects Aloe vera extract supplemented feed on hematological and immunological indices of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research, 2: 2143-2154.

Reverter M., Bontemps N., Lecchini D., Banaigs B., Sasal P. (2014). Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture, 433: 50–61.

Hai N.V. (2015). The use of medicinal plants as immunostimulants in aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture, 446: 88–96.

Adel M., Safari R., Pourgholam R., Zorriehzahra J., Esteban M.A. (2015). Dietary peppermint (Mentha piperita) extracts promote growth performance and increase the main humoral immune parameters (both at mucosal and systemic level) of Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 47: 623-629.

Akrami R., Gharaei A., Razeghi mansour M., Ghaleshi A. (2015). Effects of dietary onion (Allium cepa) powder on growth, innate immune response and hematoe-biochemical parameters of beluga (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754) juvenile. Fish and ShellFish Immunology, 45: 828-834.

Sonmez A.Y., Bilen S., Alak G., Hisar O., Yanık T., Biswas G. (2015). Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 41: 165-175.

Safari R., Hoseinifar S.H., Nejadmoghadam S., Jafar A. (2016). Transciptomic study of mucosal immune, antioxidant and growth related genes and non-specific immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed dietary Ferula (Ferula assafoetida). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 55: 242-248.

Hoseinifar S.H., Zoheiri F., Lazado C.C. (2016). Dietary phytoimmunostimulant Persian hogweed (Heracleum persicum) has more remarkable impacts on skin mucus than on serum in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 59: 77-82.

Amensour M., Sendra E., Abrini J. (2009). Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of myrtle (Myrtus communis) extracts. Natural Product Communications, 4: 819- 824.

Asgarpanah G., Ariamanesh A. (2015). Phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Myrtus communis L. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 14: 82-87.

Martin T., Rubio B., Villaescusa L. (1990). Polyphenolic compounds from pericarps of Myrtus communis. Pharmaceutical Biology, 37: 28-31.

Yoshimura M., Amakura Y., Tokuhara M. (2008). Polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis. Journal of Natural Medicines, 62: 366-368.

Habiballah J., Nozari M., Moghtari M., Zamani Z., Yazdani M. (2014). The effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 16: 12-17.

Mansouri Taee H., Hajimoradloo A., Hoseinifar S.H., Ahmadvand H. (2017). Dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) improved non-specific immune parameters and bactericidal activity of skin mucus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 64: 320-324.

Safari R., Hoseinifar S.H., Van Doan H., Dadar M. (2017). The effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) on skin mucus immune parameters and mRNA levels of growth, antioxidant and immune related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 66: 264-269.

Mohamadi Saei M., Beiranvand K., Khalesi M.K., Mehrabi F. (2016). Effects of dietary savory and myrtle essential oils on growth, survival, nutritional indices, serum biochemistry, and Hematology of farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 47: 779-785.

Mohamadi Saei M., Beiranvand K., Mansouri Taee H., Nekoubin H. (2016). Effects of different levels of BioAcid Ultra on growth performance, survival, hematologichal and biochemical parameters of fingerlings rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 7: 455.

Martins M.L., Tavares-Dias M., Fujimoto R.Y., Onaka E.M., Nomura D.T. (2004). Haematological alterations of Leporinus macrocephalus (Osteichtyes: Anostomidae) naturally infected by Goezia leporini (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in fishponds. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 56: 640-646.

Drobkin D.R. (1945). Crystallographic and optical properties of human hemoglobin: a proposal for the standardization of hemoglobin. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 209: 268-70.

Blaxhall P.C., Daisley K.W. (1973). Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. Journal of Fish Biology, 5: 771–781.

Doumas B.T., Bayse D.D., Carter R.J., Peters T.J.R., Schaffer R.A. (1981). Candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clinical Chemistry, 10: 42-50.

Doumas B.T., Watson W., Biggs H.G. (1971). Albumin standards and measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clinica Chemica Acta, 31: 87-96.

Kumar S., Sahu N.P., Pal A.K., Choudhury D., Yengkokpam S., Mukherjee S.C. (2005). Effect of dietary carbohydrate on haematology, respiratory burst activity and histological changes in L. rohita juveniles. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 19: 331–344.

Sanchooli O., Hajimoradloo A., Ghorbani R. (2012). Measurement of alkaline phosphatase and lysozyme enzymes in epidermal mucus of different weights of Cyprinus carpio. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4: 521-524.

Ellis A.E., Stolen J.S., Fletcher T.C., Anderson D.P., Robertson B.S., Van Muiswinkel W.B. (1990). Lysozyme Assay in Techniques in Fish Immunology. SOS Publications, Fair Haven, NJ, USA. pp: 101-103.

Gholipour Kanani H., Nobahar Z., Kakoolaki S., Jafarian H. (2014). Effect of gingerand garlic-supplemented diet on growth performance, some hematological parameters and immune responses in juvenile Huso huso. Fish Physiology Biochemistry, 40: 481-490.

Caipang C.M.A., Lazado C.C. (2015). Nutritional impacts on fish mucosa: immunostimulants, pre- and probiotics. In: Mucosal Health in Aquaculture (ed by B.H.B. Peatman). Academic Press, San Diego.

Jeney G., Wet L.D., Jeney Z., Yin G. (2015). Plant Extracts. In: Dietary Nutrients, Additives, and Fish Health. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. pp: 321-332.

Newaj‐Fyzul A., Austin B. (2015). Probiotics, immunostimulants, plant products and oral vaccines, and their role as feed supplements in the control of bacterial fish diseases. Journal of Fish Diseases, 38: 937-955.

Nya E.J., Austin B. (2009). Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases, 32: 971-977.

Metwally M.A.A. (2009). Effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on some antioxidant activities in tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1: 56-64.

Banaee M., Mirvagefei A.R., Rafei G.R., Amiri B.M. (2008). Effect of sub-lethal diazinon concentrations on blood plasma biochemistry. International Journal of Environmental Research, 2: 189-198.

Farahi A., Kasiri M., Sudagar M., Soleimani Iraei M., Zorriehzahra S.M.J. (2012). Effect of dietary supplementation of Melissa Officinalis and Aloe Vera on haematological traits, lipid oxidation of carcass and performance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss). Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research, 1: 1-5.

Scalbert A., Williamson G. (2000). Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols. Journal of Nutrition, 130: 2073-2085.

Nya E.J. (2009). Studies on dietary supplements for the control of Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), Doctor of Philosophy thesis. School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. 179 p.

Bilen S., Bulut M. (2010). Effects of Laurel (Laurus nobilis) on the non-specific immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9: 1275-1279.

Binaii M., Ghiasi M., Farabi S.M.V., Pourgholam R., Fazli H., Safari R., Alavi S.E., Taghavi M.J., Bankehsaz Z. (2014). Biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters in juvenile beluga (Huso huso) following the diet supplemented with nettle (Urtica dioica). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 36: 46-51.

Biller-Takahashi J.D., Takahashi L.S., Pilarski F., Sebastiao F.A., Urbinati E.C. (2013). Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887). Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 65: 1745-1751.

Metwally M.A.A., Ali M.A.A., Ell-Nobi G.A. (2001). Effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on copper (Cu) toxicity in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Zagazig Veterinary Journal, 29: 77-88.

Saurabh S., Sahoo P. (2008). Lysozyme: an important defence molecule of fish innate immune system. Aquaculture Research, 39: 223-239.

Rao Y.V., Das B.K., Jyotyrmayee P., Chakrabarti R. (2006). Effect of Achyranthes aspera on the immunity and survival of Labeo rohita infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 20: 263-273.

Choi S.H., Park K.H., Yoon T.J., Kim J.B., Jang Y.S., Choe C.H. (2008). Dietary Korean misteleto enhances cellular non-specific immune responses and survival of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 24: 67-73.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.