Acute toxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylate-6 to whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) (Decapoda, Penaeidae)

Azin Ahmadi, Ahmad Noori, Mahdi Banaee


Nonylphenol ethoxylate-6 (NP6EO) is widely used in industrial and domestic products and easily detected in the environment. The toxicity and estrogenic potency of alkylphenols have been investigated in several studies. However, to the best of our knowledge available, acute toxicity data about the effects of NP6EO on decapod and aquatic ecosystem in literature is yet scarce. Therefore, in this study the adult male and female whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, were exposed to various concentrations of NP6EO (0.04, 1, 5, 25, 125, 625 µL L-1) for four days. Acute toxicity potential of NP6EO on adult P. vannamei was assessed by calculating LC50 for different times. Median lethal concentration (LC50) of NP6EO at 96 hours was 7.017 μL L-1. The LC50 of this compound revealed a positive correlation between shrimp mortality and exposure periods. The data exhibited that NP6EO was considered as "toxic" to P. vannamei and further toxicity assessment to other species is strongly recommended.


Nonylphenol ethoxylate-6, Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, Acute toxicity.

Full Text:



Alam M.K., Maughan O.E. (1993). Acute toxicity of selected organophosphorus pesticides to Cyprinus carpio and Barilius vagra. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 28: 81-89.

Bergman Å., Heindel J., Jobling S., Kidd K., Zoeller R.T. (2012). State of the science of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Toxicology Letters, 211: S3.

David A., Fenet H., Gomez E. (2009). Alkylphenols in marine environments: distribution monitoring strategies and detection considerations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58: 953-960.

Dorn P.B., Salanitro J.P., Evans S.H., Kravetz L. (1993). Assessing the aquatic hazard of some branched and linear nonionic surfactants by biodegradation and toxicity. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 12: 1751-1762.

Environment Canada (2002). Canadian environmental quality guidelines for nonylphenol and its ethoxylates. Scientific supporting document (water, sediment, and soil). Environment Canada, Environmental Quality Branch, National Guidelines and Standards Office, Ottawa.

Faheem M., Lone K.P. (2013). Acute toxicity and Behavioural response of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings to Bisphenol-A. International Journal of Open Scientific Research, 1: 28-37.

Giger W., Brunner P.H., Schaffner C. (1984). 4-Nonylphenol in sewage sludge: accumulation of toxic metabolites from nonionic surfactants. Science, 225: 623-625.

Hirano M., Ishibashi H., Matsumura N., Nagao Y., Watanabe N., Watanabe A., Onikura N., Kishi K., Arizono K. (2004). Acute toxicity responses of two crustaceans, Americamysis bahia and Daphnia magna, to endocrine disrupters. Journal of Health Science, 50: 97-100.

Jobling S., Sumpter J.P. (1993). Detergent components in sewage effluent are weakly oestrogenic to fish: An in vitro study using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. Aquatic Toxicology, 27: 361-372.

Johnson W.W., Finley M.T. (1980). Handbook of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish and aquatic invertebrates: Summaries of toxicity tests conducted at Columbia National Fisheries Research Laboratory, 1965-78US Fish and Wildlife Service. 98 p.

Liu Y., Tam N.F.Y., Guan Y., Yasojima M., Zhou J., Gao B. (2011). Acute toxicity of nonylphenols and bisphenol A to the embryonic development of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. Ecotoxicology, 20: 1233-1245.

Lussier S.M., Champlin D., LiVolsi J., Poucher S., Pruell R.J. (2000). Acute toxicity of para‐nonylphenol to saltwater animals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 19: 617-621.

Mann R.M., Bidwell J.R. (2000). Application of the FETAX protocol to assess the developmental toxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylate to Xenopus laevis and two Australian frogs. Aquatic Toxicology, 51: 19-29.

Oliveira-Filho E., Geraldino B., Grisolia C., Paumgartten F. (2005). Acute toxicity of endosulfan, nonylphenol ethoxylate, and ethanol to different life stages of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835). Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 75: 1185-1190.

Reish D.L., Oshida P.S. (1986). Manual of methods in aquatic environment research, Part 10: short-term static bioassays. FAO. 62 p.

Ricciardi F., Matozzo V., Marin M.G. (2008). Effects of 4-nonylphenol exposure in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and crabs (Carcinus aestuarii) with particular emphasis on vitellogenin induction. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 57: 365-372.

Servos M.R. (1999). Review of the aquatic toxicity, estrogenic responses and bioaccumulation of alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates. Water Quality Research Journal of Canada, 34: 123-177.

Staples C., Mihaich E., Carbone J., Woodburn K., Klecka G. (2004). A weight of evidence analysis of the chronic ecotoxicity of nonylphenol ethoxylates, nonylphenol ether carboxylates, and nonylphenol. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 10: 999-1017.

Staples C.A., Weeks J., Hall J.F., Naylor C.G. (1998). Evaluation of aquatic toxicity and bioaccumulation of C8‐and C9‐alkylphenol ethoxylates. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17: 2470-2480.

TenEyck M.C., Markee T.P. (2007). Toxicity of Nonylphenol, Nonylphenol Monoethoxylate, and Nonylphenol Diethoxylate and Mixtures of these Compounds to Pimephales promelas (Fathead Minnow) and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 53: 599-606.

U.S. EPA. (2015). Chemical hazard classification and labeling: comparison of opp requirements and the GHS. US Environmental Protection Agency. 22 p.

Ura K., Kai T., Sakata S., Iguchi T., Arizono K. (2002). Aquatic acute toxicity testing using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of health science, 48: 583-586.

Ying G.-G., Williams B., Kookana R. (2002). Environmental fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates—a review. Environment International, 28: 215-226.

Zar J.H. (2010). Biostatistical analysis. Fifth edition. Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 947 p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.