The role of coral in art and architecture: An overview

Zohreh Moradi

Abstract

Coral is one of the richest ecosystems in the world and divided into two major groups. First group consist of soft corals living in tropical and semitropical oceans and seas. People in the past used these kinds of coral to make jewelry and decorative objects. Second group contains hard coral which have been used as construction material in coastal zones. This paper presents the role of corals in art and architecture in four southern Islands (Qeshm, Hormoz, Hengam and Larak) of the Persian Gulf by studying objects in some museums around the world and some ancient Iranian jewelry manuscripts. The results showed that despite references made about corals, especially the red one, in jewelry and historical books and in Persian literature, there have never been any traces of an object made by coral in the Persian Gulf. In scientific researchers, there is no report on red coral in the Persian Gulf and studies indicate that red coral as a jewelry and decorative objects were exported to these Islands via India and Africa. Instead three groups of Coral reefs, Lumashell and Coquina were used as construction materials in these Islands mostly in historical, religious, hydraulic and offshore architectures.

Keywords

Coral, Art, Architecture, Jewelry, Persian Gulf.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Al-Kashani A.A. (2007). Rays-Jawahiri and costly gifts alatayb. I. Afshar (Ed.). Alma publication, Tehran, Iran. 400 p. (In Farsi)

Anon A. (2009). Consideration of proposals for amendment of appendices I and II. Fifteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, Doha, Qatar. 309 p.

Allemand D., Bénazet-Tambutté S. (1996). Dynamics of calcification in the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus) (Cnidaria, Octocorallia). Journal of Experimental Zoology, 276: 270-278.

Baco A., Clark A.M., Shank T.M. (2006). Six microsatellite loci from the deep-sea coral Corallium lauuense (octocorallia: Coralliidae) from the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6: 147-149.

Baco A.R., Shank T.M. (2005). Population genetic structure of the Hawaiian precious coral Corallium lauuense using microsatellites. In: A. Freiwald, J.M. Roberts (Eds.). Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems, Heidelberg: springer, pp. 663-678.

Bayer F.M., Cairns S.D. (2003). A new genus of the scleraxonian family Coralliidae (octocorallia: Gorgonacea). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 116: 222-228.

Biruni A.R.M.I.A. (1995). Al-Jamahir fel Marafet Al-javahr. M.A. Zajafi, M. Khalili (translation). Kakhe Danesh publication, Tehran, Iran. 116 p. (In Farsi)

Cairns S. (2007). Deep-water corals: an overview with special reference to diversity and distribution of deep water scleractinian corals. Bulletin of Marine Science, 81: 311-322.

Cairns S.D., Calder D.R., Brinckmann-Voss A., Castro C.B., Fautin D.G., Pugh P.R., Mills C.E., Jaap W.C., Arai M.N., Haddock S.H.D., Opresko D.M. (2002). Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. 2nd edition. Bethesda, Maryland: American Fisheries Society Special Publication, 28: 1–115.

Cicogna F., Cattaneo-Vietti R. (1993). Red coral in the Mediterranean Sea: Art, History and Science. Massa Lubrense: Centro Lubrense Esplorazioni Marine (CLEM). 263 p.

Coles S.L., Riegl B.M. (2013). Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: A review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 72: 323-332.

Devogeleare A., Burton E.J., Trejo T., King C.E., Clague D.A., Tamburri M.N., Cailliet G.M., Kochevar R.E., Douros W.J. (2005). Deep-sea corals and resource protection at the Davidson seamount, California, USA. In: A. Freiwald, J.M. Roberts (Eds.). Cold-water Corals and Ecosystems. Berlin, Springer, pp. 1189-1198.

Dridi A. (2009). Mediterranean Red Coral. In: A.W. Bruckner, G.G. Roberts (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Corallium Science, Management and Trade. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-43 and CRCP-8, Silver Spring, Maryland. 170 p.

Ehrlich P., Etnoyer S.D., Litvinov Etnoyer P., Litvinov S.D., Olennikova M.M., Domaschke H., Hanke T., Born R., Meissner H., Worch H. (2006). Biomaterial structure in deep-sea bamboo coral (Anthozoa: Gorgonacea: Isididae). Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik. 569 p.

Ellis S., Sharron L. (1999). The Culture of corals for the marine aquarium trade. Center for Tropical and subtropical Aquaculture Publication, No. 140. 171 p.

Farokhi A.H.A.B.J.S. (2015). The book of lyric, Amirkabir Publication, Tehran, Iran. 547 p. (In Farsi)

Ferdowsi A. (2013). Shahnameh, ghatreh Publication, Tehran, Iran. 1380 p. (In Farsi)

Chkrn, Dayasary (2001). Change the destiny and treatment using gems and jewels, colors and crystals, translation Parvin Bayat, Bayat publication, Tehran, Iran. 180 p. (In Farsi)

Ghirshman R. (2005). Iran is beginning to Islam, translation, Mohammad Moin, Moin Publication, Tehran, Iran. 544 p. (In Farsi)

Grigg R.W. (1993). Precious coral fisheries of Hawaii and the U.S. Pacific Islands. Marine Fisheries Review, 55(2): 50-60.

Grigg R.W. (2002). Precious corals in Hawaii: discovery of a new bed and revised management measures for existing beds. Marine Fisheries Review, 64: 13-20.

Hall J. (2010). Culture graphic symbols in the art of East and West. R. Behzadi (translation). Contemporary Culture, Tehran, Iran. 458 p. (In Farsi)

Harrington F.A. (1986). Iran: Surveys of the southern Iranian coastline with recommendations for additional marine reserves. In: Promotion of the establishment of marine parks and reserves in the northern Indian Ocean including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. IUNC Pub. New Series. 525 p.

Hickman C.P., Roberts L.S., Keen S.L., Eisenhour D.J., Larson L., I’Anson H. (2015). Integrated Principles of Zoology. McGraw-Hill Education, Washington and Lee University. 823 p.

Heifetz J., Wing B.L., Stone R.P., Malecha P.W., Courtney D.L. (2005). Corals of the Aleutian Islands. Fisheries Oceanography, 14: 131-138.

Hickson S.J. (1924). An introduction to the study of recent corals. Manchester University Press, London. 257 p.

Horsfield B. (2011). Strategic stone study a building stone atlas of Oxfordshire, trust’s contribution to the strategic stone study, English Heritage Press. 15 p.

Hosseini R., Nykvdl M.R., Moghadasi N., Tlkhabv M. (2006). Assessment field, laboratory and petrographic rock performance Lvmashly (Case Study breakwaters Kong, Hormozgan. Tenth Congress of the Geological Society of Iran. 327 p. (In Farsi)

Ibn-Mansour M. (1976). Gvhrnameh. M.bSotoudeh (Ed.). Iranian Culture publication, Tehran, Iran. 302 p. (In Farsi)

Knuth B.C. (1999). Gems in Myth, Legend and Lore. Thornton, Co: Jewelers Press. 397 p.

Kosuge S. (1993). History of the precious coral fisheries in Japan. Precious Corals and Octocorals Research 1, 30-38. Lacaze-Duthiers, h. 1864. Histoire Naturelle du Corail. Paris, Baillère. 370 p.

Liverino B. (1983). Il Corallo-Esperienze e ricordi di un corallaro. Banca di credito populare Torre del Greco. Torre del Greco, Italy: li Causi Editore. 220 p.

Lieonart J., Camarassa J.M. (1987). La Pesca a Catalunya El 1722 Segons Un Manuscrit De Joan Salvador I Riera. Barcelona: Museu Maritim, Diputacio de Barcelona. 126 p.

Magsaysay M. (2013). Coral makes a splash. Los Angeles Times. 100 p.

Marsili C.L.F. (1707). Extrait d´une lettre écrite de Cassis, prés de Marseille, le 18 décember 1706 à M. Abbé Bignon, touchon queques branches de corail qui ont fleuri. Le Journal des Scavans, 35: 346-359.

Morgan l.E., Tsao C., Guinotte J.M. (2006). Status of deep sea corals in US waters with recommendations for their conservation and management. Bellevue, WA: Marine Conservation Biology institute. 215 p.

Noorbakhsh H. (1991). The Persian Gulf aquatics (Research on fisheries, sea and aquatic Persian Gulf), Amirkabir Publication, Tehran, Iran. 443 p. (In Farsi)

Pedersen M.C. (2004). Gem and ornamental materials of organic origin. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom. 268 p.

Pouwels R.L. (2002). Horn and crescent: cultural change and traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800-1900. Cambridge University Press. 288 p.

Ravandi M. (1977). A social history of Iran. Amirkabir Pubication, Tehran, Iran. 218 p. (In Farsi)

Reddy P.N., Lakshmana M., Udupa U.V., Lakshmana U. (2003). Effect of Praval bhasma (Coral calx), a natural source of rich calcium on bone mineralization in rats. Pharmacological Research, 48(6): 593-9.

ROPME. (1999). Manual of oceanographic observations and pollutant analyses methods (MOOPAM), regional organization for the protection of the marine environment, Kuwait. 269 p.

Skeates R. (1993). Mediterranean coral: its use and exchange in and around the alpine region during the later Neolithic and copper age. Oxford Journal of Archaeology, 12: 281-292.

Spalding M., Green E., Ravilious C. (2001). World atlas of coral reefs, Berkeley, California, University of California Press. 416 p.

Tlkhablv M., Hosseini Nykvdl M.R., Orumiyeh A. (2007). Evaluation and classification Lvmashl stones rubble mound breakwaters on the southern coast of Iran, Fifth Conference on Engineering Geology and the Environment. 117 p. (In Farsi)

Tescione G. (1973). The Italians and their coral fishing. Naples, Fausto Fiorentino, Italy. 490 p.

Tsounis G., Rossi S., Grigg R., Santangelo G., Bramanti L., Gili J. (2010). The Exploitation and Conservation of Precious Corals. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 48: 161-212.

Unsuri A.H.I.A. (1986). Favorite lyrics. M.D. Siyaghi (Ed.). Amirkabir Publication, Tehran, Iran. 40 p. (In Farsi)

Wells S. (1983). Precious corals commercially threatened. IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 35-42.

Wilson J., Christie J. (1987). Iran Industrial History, translation Abdullah Faryar, Yassavoli Press, Tehran, Iran. 230 p. (In Farsi)

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.