Bioconcentration factor of heavy metals in some aquatic plants in the Shatt Al-Arab River and the possibility of using them as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution
This study was conducted to measure the concentration of heavy metals (manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and cadmium) in water and aquatic plants of Ceratophullum demersum as a submerged, Phragmites australis as an emergent, and Lemna minor as a floating aquatic plant to calculate their bioconcentration factor and compare them in aquatic plants to find out proper one as heavy metal bioindicator. Three stations were selected for sampling from the Shatt Al-Arab River, based on the differences in their characteristics in terms of human activities and distribution of aquatic plants. The results showed that C. demersum can absorb most of the heavy metals, followed by the Ph. Australis. The manganese element was the distinguished element with the highest accumulation rate. Based on the results C. demersum can be suggested as a bioindicator of heavy metal pollution in the Shatt Al-Arab River.
Al-Asadi S.A.R., Al-Hawash A.B., Alkhlifa N.A.H., Ghalib H.B. (2019). Factors affecting the levels of toxic metals in the Shatt Al-Arab River, southern Iraq. Earth Systems and Environment, 3: 313-325.
Al-Asadi S.A.R., Al-Qurnawi W.S., Al Hawash A.B., Ghalib H.B., Alkhlifa N.A.H. (2020). Water quality and impacting factors on heavy metals levels in Shatt Al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq. Applied Water Science, 10: 103.
Albadran B., Al-Beyati F., Abdullah Y. (1996). Heavy minerals distribution in the lower part of the Shatt Al-Arab river, S. Iraq. Marina Mesopotamica 11(1): 17-26.
Aldoghachi1 M.A., Altamimi D.E. (2021). Assessment of Water Quality Using Heavy Metals Concentrations in Several Water Resources of Shatt Al-Arab and Tissues of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the Shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries, 25(2): 803-817.
Al-Edani T.Y., Al-Tameemi H.J., Jasim Z.F. (2019). Phytoremediation of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, and Pb) by using aquatic plants in Shatt Al-Arab River. Engineering and Technology Journal, 37(3C): 365-369.
Al-Jaberi M.H., Al-Dabbas M.A., Al-Khafaji R. (2016). Assessment of heavy metals of heavy metals contamination and sediment quality in Shatt Al-Arab River. Iraq. Iraqi Geological Journal, 39-49(1): 88-98.
Al-khafaji B.Y., Al-Awady A.A.M. (2014). Concentration and accumulation of some trace elements in water, sediment and two species of aquatic plants collected from the Main outfall drain, near the center of Al-Nassiriyia city/ Iraq. Journal of Biotechnology Research Center, 8(2): 19-27.
Al-Khuzaie D.K.K., Hassan W.F., Imran R.A., Abdul-Nabi Z.A. (2020). Water quality of Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah Iraq: Heavy And Trace Metal Concentration. Pollution Research, 39(2): 231-236.
APHA (American Public Helth Association). (2005). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, Washington, DC 20036. 1193 p.
Arkadiusz N., Jacek K., Agnieszka T., Sylwia M. (2007). Heavy metals in the waters of Dabie Lake in the year 1997-2000. Ecological Chemistry and Engineering, 14(1): 77-84.
Athbi A.M., Eyal, A.W.R., Nasser S.N. (2018). Bioaccumulation of cobalt and cadmium in aquatic Ceratophylum demersum. A special issue on the proceedings of the second international environmental conference. 63-75.
Burada A., ?opa C.M., Georgescu L.P., Liliana L., Teodorof T., N?stase C., Daniela S., Bogdan M. (2014). Heavy metals accumulation in plankton and water of four aquatic complexes from Danube Delta area. International Journal of the Bioflux Society, 7(4): 301-310.
Coleman J., Hench K., Garbutt K., Sexstone A., Bissonnete G., Skousen J. (2001). Treatment of domestic wastewater by three plant species in constructed wetlands. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 128: 283-295.
Dhir B., Kumar R. (2010). Adsorption of heavy metals by Salvinia biomass and agricultural residues, International Journal of Environmental Research, 4: 427-432.
Dirilgen N. (2001). Accumulation of heavy metals in fresh water organisms: Assessment of Toxic interactions. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 25: 173-179.
Dube A., Zbytniewski R., Kowalkowski T., Cukrowska E., Buszewski B. (2001). Adsorption and migration of heavy metls in soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 10(1): 1-10.
Durubi J.O., Ogwuebu M.O., Egwurngwn J.N. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 2(5): 112 -118.
Ekval L., Greger M. (2002). Effects of environmental biomass producing factors on cd uptake in two Swedish ecotypes of Pinus sylvestris. Environmental Pollution, 121: 401-411.
El-Gamal I.M. (2000). Distribution pattern of some heavy metals in soil and plants along El-Moukattam Highway. ICEHM 2000. Cairo University, Egypt. pp: 518-524.
Forstner U., Wittmann G.T.W. (1981). Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer-Verlag, New York. 486 p.
Hanaf R.A. (2016). The relationship between some heavy metals, phytoplankton productivity and biomass of some aquatic plants prevalent in selected areas of Shatt Al-Arab/southern Iraq. PhD thesis. Basra University/College of Agriculture. 200 p.
Hassan W.F., Albadran B.N., Faraj M.A. (2008). The geochemical distribution of trace metals in Shatter Al-Arab River Sediments. Marine Mesopotamica, 23(2): 419-436.
Jamnicka G., Hrivnak R., Otahelova H., Skorsepa M., Valachvic M. (2007). Heavy metals content in aquatic plant species from some aquatic biotopes in Slovakia. Vega 5083, Ministry of Education, Slovak Academy of Sciences. 165 p.
Kakar S., Wahid A., Tareen R.B., Kakar S.A., Tariq M., Kayani S.A. (2010). Impact of municipal wastewater of Queta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(1): 317- 328.
Kumar P.B., Dushenkov V., Motto H., Raskin I. (2009). Phytoextraction-the use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environmental Science and Technology, 29: 1232-1238.
Lateef Z.Q., Al-Madhhachi T.A., Sachit E.D. (2020). Evaluation of Water Quality Parameters in Shatt Al- Arab, Southern Iraq, Using Spatial Analysis. Hydrology, 7: 79.
Matache M.L., Marin C., Rozylowicz L., Tudorache A. (2013). Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences and Engineering, 1(1): 39-52.
Memon A.R., Altoprakligil D., Ozdemir, A., Vertii A. (2001). Heavy metals accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in plants. Turkish Journal of Botany 25: 111-121.
Memon A.R., Chino M., Yatazawa M. (1981). Micro-distribution of aluminum and manganese in the tea leaf tissues as revealed by X-ray microanalyzer. Communication in Soil Science and Plant Aanlysis, 12: 441-452.
Minkoff E.C., Baker P.J. (2001). Biology today: An issues. 2th Ed. 718 p.
Peverly J.H. (1988). Characterization of Sediment Cd with Decreased Toxicity in Myriophyllum spicatum L. In: D. D. Hemphill (Ed.), Trace Substance in Environmental Health-XXII. University of Missouri. pp: 299-309.
Polle A., Schutzendubel A. (2002). Heavy metal signaling in plants: linking celluler and organismic responses. Topics in current Genetics, 4: 188-205.
Rékási M., Filep T., Morvai B. (2006). Effect of communal sewage sludge loads on Zn and Cu content of soils and plant uptake. Cereal Research Communications, 34: 271-274.
Scheid D.L., Marco R.D., Grolli A.L., Da Silva R.F., Da Ros F.C., Andreazza R. (2017). Growth, tolerance and zinc accumulation in Senna multijuga and Erythrina crista-galli seedlings. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, 21(7): 465-470.
Singh J.; Yadav P.; Pal A.K. and Mishra V. (2020). Water Pollutants: Origin and Status. In: D. Pooja, P. Kumar, P. Singh, S. Patil (Eds.) Sensors in Water Pollutants Monitoring: Role of Material. Advanced Functional Materials and Sensors. Springer, Singapore.
Taobi A.A.H.; Ali B.Z., Al-Hejuje M.M. (2000). Distribution of heavy elements and water chemistry in Al- Ashar and Al- Khandak canals connected with Shatt Al-Arab River-Basrah. Basrah Journal of Science, 18(1): 68- 80.
U.S.EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2012). Waste and cleanup risk assessment. http://www2. epa.gov/risk/waste-and-cleanup-risk-assessment Usero J, González-Regalado E, Gracia I (1997). Trace metals in the bivalve mollusks Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum from the Atlantic coast of southern Spain. Environment International, 23: 291-298.
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Aquatic Biology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.