Bioaccumulation of hydrocarbon compounds in the muscle of three aquatic birds in Um Alnaaj Marsh, Iraq
The current study was conducted to determine the concentrations and origins of total petroleum hydrocarbon TPHs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in three bird species of Anas platyrhynchos, A. crecca and A. acuta collected from November 2020 to April 2021 in Um Alnaaj Marsh, Iraq. Based on the results, the TPHs (g/g.dry weight) in muscle tissues were 13.79 and 16.74 in A. platyrhynchos, 40.84 and 43.0 in A. crecca, and 10.08 and 11.18 in A. acuta during winter and autumn, respectively. The PAHs (ng/g.dw) in muscle tissues were 41.22 and 146.86 in A. platyrhynchos and 31.17 and 42.98 in A. crecca during winter and autumn, respectively, whereas it was 24.41 to 75.51 in A. acuta during autumn and winter, respectively. The lower molecular weight PAHs was less than higher molecular weight PAHs in all bird species throughout the period study. The origins of PAHs in muscles tissues of the studied bird species were estimated according to the ratio of LPAHs/HPAHs, Fluo/Pyr, Phe/Ant, Inpy/(Inpy+BghiP), Ant/(Ant+Phe), and BaA/(BaA+chr) and based on the findings, they were mostly pyrogenic and few petrogenic. The results also showed that the bird species have the ability to accumulate these compounds in their muscles according to values of BCF which is between 2.29 and 5.81 in A. crecca and A. platyrhynchos, respectively. These bird species were contaminated with petroleum compounds and the consumption of their meat may pose public health hazards.
Albers P.H. (2006). Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, 17:125-140.
Al-Handal A., Taffs, K., Abdullah D., Zawadzki A. (2016). Vertical distribution of diatoms in the sediment of Al-Huwaiza marsh south of Iraq and their use as indicator of environmental change. Algological Studies, 150: 53-76.
Al-Khatib F.M.H. (2008). Determination the concentration, origin and biota of Hor Al-Howaiza, south of Iraq and their sources. Ph.D., thesis, College of Science, University of Basrah. 228 p. (In Arabic).
Al-Khion D.D. (2012). Sources and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compounds in water, sediments and some biota of Iraqi coast regions. Ph.D. thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basrah, 171 p.
Al-Saad H.T. (1995). Distribution ad source of hydrocarbons in Shatt Al- Arab Estuary and North West Arabian Gulf. Ph. D. thesis, University of Basrah. 186 P.
Anyakora C., Coker H. (2007). Assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons Content in four species of fish in the Niger Delta by Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(6): 737-743.
Bandowe B.A.M., Bigalke M., Boamah L., Nyarko E., Saalia F.K., Wilcke W (2014). Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs and oxygenated PAHs) and trace metals in fish species from Ghana (West Africa): bioaccumulation and health risk assessment. Environment International, 65: 135-146.
Bedair H.M., Al-Saad H.T., Salman N.A. (2006). Iraq’s southern marshes something special to be conserved; A Case Study. Marsh Bulletin, 2(1): 99-126.
Carpenter A. (2019). Oil pollution in the North Sea: the impact of governance measures on oil pollution over several decades. Hydrobiologia, 845: 109-127.
Custer T.W., Custer C.M., Dickerson K., Allen K., Melancon M.J., Schmidt, L.J. (2001). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, trace elements, and monooxygenase activity in birds nesting on the North Platte River, Casper, Wyoming, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: An International Journal, 20(3): 624-631.?
Doong R., Lin Y. (2004). Characterization and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediment and water from Geoping River, Taiwan. Water Research, 38: 1733-1744.
Eckle P., Burgherr P., Michaux E. (2012). Risk of large oil spills: a statistical analysis in the aftermath of deep-water horizon. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(23): 13002-13008.?
Eisler R. (2000). Handbook of chemical risk assessment. Health Hazards to Humans, Plants, and Animals, Vol. 2, Organics. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL. pp: 1343-1411.
Fernandes M.B., Sicre M.A., Boireau A., Tronczynski J. (1997). Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distribution in the Seine River and its estuary. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 34: 857-867.
Fernie K.J., Marteinson S.C., Chen D., Eng A., Harner T., Smits E.G., Soos C. (2018). Elevated exposure, uptake and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by nesting tree swallows (Tachycineta bicor) through multiple exposure routes in active mining-related areas of the Athabasca oil sands region. Science of the Total Environment, 624: 250-261.
Frank O., Boisa N. (2018). The effect of crude oil spill on the surface water of the lower Niger Delta (Sombriero River). Journal of Industrial and Environmental Chemistry, 2(2): 19-24.
Gammonley J.H. (1995). Spring feeding ecology of cinnamon teal in Arizona. The Wilson Bulletin, 64-72.?
Giese M., Goldsworthy S.D., Gales R., Brothers N., Hamill J. (2000). Effects of the iron baron oil spill on little penguins (Eudyptula minor). III. Breeding success of rehabilitated oiled birds. Wildlife Research, 27: 583-591.
Grimalt J.O., Oliver J. (1993). Sources input elucidation in aquatic system by factor and Principal component and analysis of molecular marker date. Analytica Chimica Acta, 278: 159-176.
Guo W., He M., Yang Z., Lin C., Quan X., Wang H. (2007). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment from Daliao River watershed, China. Chemosphere, 68: 93-104.
Hashim B.M., Sultan M.A., Attyia M.N., Al Maliki A.A., Al-Ansari N. (2019). Change detection and impact of climate changes to Iraqi southern marshes using Landsat 2 Mss, Landsat 8 Oli and sentinel 2 Msi data and Gis applications. Applied Sciences, 9(10): 2016.?
Hassan F.M., Hadi R.A., Kassim T.I., Al-Hassany J.S. (2012). Systematic study of epiphytic algal after restoration of Al-Hawizah marshes, southern of Iraq. International Journal of Aquatic Science, 3(1): 37-57.?
Jardine T.D., Kidd K.A., Fisk A.T. (2006). Applications, considerations, and sources of uncertainty when using stable isotope analysis in ecotoxicology. Environmental Science and Technology, 40: 7501-7511.
Jazza S.H. (2015). The Status of hydrocarbon compounds pollution of water, sediments and some aquatic biota in Al-Kahlaa River-Missan Province/Iraq. Ph. D. thesis. College of Science, University of Basrah. 137 p.
Jazza S.H., Khwadem A.A. (2021). Origins and distribution of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of some rivers in Misan Province, Iraq. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 8(Special issue 1): 46-53.
Jernelöv A. (2010). The threats from oil spills: now, then, and in the future. Ambio, 39(5): 353-366.?
Kafilzadeh F., Shiva, A.H., Malekpour R. (2011). Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water and Sediments of the Kor River, Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 10(1): 1-7.
Kuppusamy S., Maddela N.R., Megharaj M., Venkateswarlu K. (2020). Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Environmental fate, Toxicity and Remediation. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. 285 p.
Kwok C.K., Liang L., Leung S.Y., Wang H., Dong Y.H., Young L., Giesy J.P., Wong M.H. (2013). Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), and contaminant levels in prey fish to indicate the extent of PAHs and OCPs contamination in eggs of water birds. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 20: 8425-8434.
Lawrence J.F., Weber D.F. (1984). Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some Canadian commercial fish, shellfish, and meat products by liquid chromatography with confirmation by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 32: 789-794.
Maisano M., Cappello T., Oliva S., Natalotto A., Giannetto A., Parrino V., Battaglia P., Romeo T., Salvo A., Span N., Maucer A. (2016).PCB and OCP accumulation and evidence of hepatic alteration in the Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, from the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Environmental Research, 121: 40-48.
Malcolm H., Shore R.F. (2003). Freshwater Birds, Mammals and Amphibians. PAHs. An Ecotoxico-logical Perspective, 4: 225.?
Mccarty L.S. (1986). The relationship between aquatic toxicity QSARs and bioconcentration for some organic chemicals. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 5: 1071-1080.
Mendelssohn I.A., Andersen G.L., Baltz D.M; Caffey R.H., Carman K.R., Fleeger J.W., Rozas L.P. (2012). Oil impacts on coastal wetlands: implications for the Mississippi River Delta ecosystem after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Bio Science, 62(6): 562-574.?
Mengelkoch J.M., Niemi G.L., Regal R.R (2004). Diet of the nestling tree swallow. Condor, 106: 423-429.
NRC. (2003). Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. National Academies Press, Washington.
Oshienemen N.A., Dilanthi A., Richard P.H (2018). Evaluation of the impacts of oil spill disaster on communities and its influence on restiveness in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Procedia Engineering 212: 1054-1061.
Pereiara M.G., Walker L.A., Best J., Shore R.F. (2009). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the eggs of predatory birds in Britain. Environmental Science and Technology, 43: 9010-9015.
Qiu Y.W., Zhang G., Liu G.Q.; Guo L.L., Li X.D., Wai O. (2009). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column and sediment core of Deep Bay, South China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 83: 60-66.
Roscales J.L., Gonzalez-Solis J., Calabuig P., Jimenez B. (2011). Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds. Environmental Pollution, 159(10): 2899-2905.
Saleh S.M., Farhan F.J., Karem D.S., Al-Saad H.T., Al-Anbe L.J. (2020). N-alkanes in sediment of Al-Hammar marsh, Southern Iraq. Marsh Bulletin, 15(1): 12-18.
Shore, R.F., Wright J., Horne J.A., Sparks T.H (1999). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) residues in the eggs of coastal-nesting birds from Britain. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 38: 509-513.
Sterry P., Cleave A., Clements A., Goodfellow P. (2001). Birds of Britain and Europe. Norfolk House, London.
Sun R.X., Lin Q., Ke C.L., Du F.Y., Gu Y.G., Cao K., Luo X.J., Mai B.X. (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and marine organisms from the Daya Bay, South China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 103: 325-332.
Swanson G.A., Krapu G.L., Serie J.R. (1979). Foods of laying female dabbling ducks on the breeding grounds. Waterfowl and wetlands-an integrated review. Northcentral Section, the Wildlife Society, Madison, Wis, 47-57.?
Taylor W.D., Abdulah D.S., Talib A.H., Al-Kubaisi A.A., Hassan F.M. (2011). Phytoplankton primary production in southern Iraqi marshes after restoration. Baghdad Science Journal, 8(1): 519-530.
Thompson J.D., Baldassarre G.A. (1990). Carcass composition of nonbreeding blue-winged teal and northern pintails in Yucatan, Mexico. The Condor, 92(4): 1057-1065.
Tidwell P.R. (2010). Effects of wetland density and area on nutrient reserves, lipid acquisition and diet of dabbling ducks migrating through the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska (Doctoral dissertation, Arkansas Tech University.? 214 p.
Tolosa I., Mora, S., Sheikholeslami M.R., Villeneuve J.P., Bartocci J., Cattin C. (2004). Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal Caspian Sea sediments. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 48: 44-60.
Troisi G.M., Bexton S., Robinson I. (2006). Polyaromatic hydrocarbon and PAH metabolite burdens in oiled common guillemots (Uria aalge) stranded on the east coast of England (2001-2002). Environmental Science and Technology, 40(24): 7938-7943.?
UNEP. (2006). Iraqi Marshlands Observation System, UNEP Technical Report. 71 p.
Verbrugge L.A., Giesy J.P., Verbrugge D.A., Woodin B.R., Stegeman J.J. (2001). Catalytic and immune-chemical properties of hepatic cytochrome P450 1A in three avian species treated with naphthoflavone or isosafrole. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C, 130: 67-83
Vrana B., Pasch A., Popp P. (2001). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration and patterns in sediments and surface water of mansfed region, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 3(6): 602-9.
Younis K.H., Al-Mossawy M.H., Jabir A.A. (2011). Composition structure of fish assemblage in Um Alnaaj, Al- Hawaizah marsh, Iraq. Basrah Research Journal (Scientific), 3: 49-59.
Yunker M.B., Macdonald R.W., Vingarzan R., Mitchell R.H., Goyette D., Sylvestre S. (2002). PAHs in the Fraser River basin: A critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Organic Geochemistry, 33(4): 489-515.
Zakaria M.P., Takada H., Tsutsumi S., Ohno K., Yamada J., Kouno E., Kumata H. (2002). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rivers and estuaries in Malaysia: a widespread input of petrogenic PAHs. Environmental Science and Technology, 36(9): 1907-1918.
Zhang G., Pan Z., Wang X., Mo X., Li X. (2015). Distribution and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the food web of Nansi Lake, China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187: 173.
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Aquatic Biology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.