The effects of washing with Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillet during refrigerator storage

Eshagh Zakipour Rahimabadi, Mehri Zolfaghari, Mahin Rigi


This study evaluated the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of tamarind water solution on shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) fillet during refrigerator storage. Treatments of this study were unwashed samples (control), and samples washed with 1% and 2% tamarind water solution. Microbial, physicochemical and sensory analysis including total viable count (TVC), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile base (TVB-N) and pH were measured during 15 day storage at refrigerator (with 3 days intervals). Proximate analysis of samples also measured at day 0. TVC content was 0.93, 0.50 and 0.10 log CFU/g for control and treatments 1% and 2%, respectively and reached to 6.24, 5.82 and 5.21 log CFU/g at the end of storage period. At the end of storage period, the PV, TBA and TVB-N content were 8.4, 4.3, and 3.0 meq O2/Kg for control, 2.75, 1.35, and 0.50 mg/100g for 1% treatment, and 33.17, 23.90, and 22.10 mg N/100g for 2% treatment, respectively. This results showed the positive effect of tamarind to inhibit and delay fish fillet spoilage. According to sensory evaluation, the density of 1% tamarind was selected as the best density.


Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Tamarindus indica, Shelf life, Cold storage.

Full Text:



AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Association of Analytical Chemists, Procedure. Washington, DC.

AOAC. (2002). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (17th ed.). MD, Gaithersburg, USA Association of Official Analytical Chemistry.

AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international (18th ed.). Maryland, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.

Arashisar S., Hisar O., Kaya M., Yanik T. (2004). Effects of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on microbiological and chemical properties of rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss) fillets. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 97(2): 209-214.

Ashie I.N.A., Smith J.P., Simpson B.K. (1996). Spoilage and shelf life extension of fresh fish and shellfish. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 36 (1-2): 87-121.

ASTM. (1969). Manual on sensory testing methods. American society for testing and materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, USA. pa. 19103, pp: 34-42.

Baker J., Hamzeh S.A. (1997). The effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) and lime (Citrus medica) juice washing on the sensory attributes and the rancidity development in breaded tilapia - A preliminary study. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science, 20: 107-111.

Calo-Mata P., Arlindo S., Boehme K., de Miguel T., Pascoal A., Barros-Velazquez J. (2008). Current applications and future trends of lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins for the biopreservation of aquatic food products. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 1(1): 43-63.

Chaijan M., Benjakul S., Visessanguan W., Faustman, C. (2006). Changes of lipids in sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) muscle during iced storage. Food Chemistry, 99(1): 83-91.

Connell J.J. (1990). Control of fish quality, 2nd. London: Fishing News Books. 226 p.

De M., Krishna De A., Banerjee A.B. (1999). Antimicrobial screening of some Indian spices. Phytotherapy Research, 13(7): 616-618.

Dragoev S.G., Kiosev D.D., Danchev S.A., Ionchev N.I., Genv N.S. (1998). Study on oxidative processes in frozen fish. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(1): 55-65.

El-Siddig K., Ebert G., Luedders P. (1999). Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.): a review on a multipurpose tree with promising future in the Sudan. Journal of Applied Botany, 73: 202- 205.

El-Siddig K.E., Gunasena H.P.M., Prasa B.A., Pushpakumara D.K.N.G., Ramana K.V.R., Vijayanand P., Williams J.T. (2006). Tamarind: Tamarindus indica L. Southampton: Southampton Centre for Underutilized Crops, UK, 188 p.

Erkan N., Özden O. (2008). Quality assessment of whole and gutted sardines (Sardina pilchardus) stored in ice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 43(9): 1549-1559.

Fan W., Chi Y., Zhang S. (2008). The use of a tea polyphenol dip to extend the shelf life of silver carp (Hypophthalmicthys molitrix) during storage in ice. Food Chemistry, 108(1): 148-153.

Fan W., Sun J., Chen Y., Qiu J., Zhang Y., Chi, Y. (2009). Effects of chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of silver carp during frozen storage. Food Chemistry, 115(1): 66-70.

Fernández K., Aspe E., Roeckel M. (2009). Shelf-life extension on fillets of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) using natural additives, super-chilling and modified atmosphere packaging. Food Control, 20(11): 1036-1042.

Giménez B., Roncalés P., Beltrán J.A. (2002). Modified atmosphere packaging of filleted rainbow trout. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82: 1154-1159.

Gomes H.A., Silva E.N., Nascimento M.R.L., Fukuma H.T. (2003). Evaluation of the 2-thiobarbituric acid method for the measurement of lipid oxidation in mechanically deboned gamma irradiated chicken meat. Food Chemistry, 80(3): 433-437.

Gram L., Huss H.H. (1996). Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 33(1): 121-137.

Guillén M.D., Ruiz A. (2004). Study of the oxidative stability of salted and unsalted salmon fillets by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. Food Chemistry, 86(2): 297-304.

Hassan A.R.B. (2002). The effect of different cooling techniques on quality parameters of herring in relation to Malaysian fisheries and design of refrigeration system suitable for Malaysian vessels. Final projects. UNU- Fisheries Training Program.

Hebard C.E., Flick G.J., Martin R.E. (1982). Occurrence and significance of trimethylamine oxide and its derivatives in fish and shell fish. In: R.E. Martin, G.J. Flick, C.E. Hebard, D.R. Ward (Eds.). Chemistry and biochemistry of marine food products. Westport, CT, USA: AVI Publishing Co. pp: 149-304

Hyytiä E., Hielm S., Mokkila M., Kinnunen A., Korkeala H. (1999). Predicted and observed growth and toxigenesis by Clostridium botulinum type E in vacuum-packaged fishery products challenge tests. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 47(3): 161-169.

Ibrahim S.M., Desouky S.G. (2009). Effect of antimicrobial metabolites produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lab) on quality aspects of frozen Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fillets. World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 1(1): 40-45.

Ladikos D., Lougovois V. (1990). Lipid oxidation in muscle food: A review. Food Chemistry, 35(4): 2953-314.

Lewis Y.S., Neelakantan S. (1964). The real nature of tamarind anthoxanthins. Current Science, 15: 460.

Lin C.C., Lin C.S. (2005). Enhancement of the storage quality of frozen bonito fillet by glazing with tea extracts. Food Control, 16(2): 169-175.

Liston J. (1980). Microbiology in fishery science. In: J.J. Connell (Ed.). Advances in fishery science and technology. Fishing News Book Ltd., Surrey, Farnham, England. pp: 138-157.

Lu F., Ding Y., Ye X., Liu D. (2010). Cinnamon and nisin in alginate-calcium coating maintain quality of fresh northern snakehead fish fillets. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43(9): 1331-1335.

Lutterodt G.D., Ismail A., Basheer R.H., Baharudin H.M. (1999). Antimicrobial effect of Psidium guajava extract as one mechanism of its antiarrhoeal action. The Malaysian Journal of Medical Science, 6(2): 17-20.

Massa A.E., Palacios D.L., Paredi M.E., Crupkin M. (2005). Postmortem changes in quality indices of ice- stored flounder (Paralchthys patagonicus). Journal of Food Biochemistry, 29: 570-590.

Mexis S.F., Chouliara E., Kontominas M.G. (2009). Combined effect of an oxygen absorber and oregano essential oil on shelf life extension of rainbow trout fillets stored at 4 degrees C. Food Microbiology, 26(6): 598-605.

Mohsin M.D., Bakar J., Selamat J. (1999). The effects on colour, texture and sensory attributes achieved by washing black tilapia flesh with a banana leaf ash solution. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 34(4): 359-363.

Namulema A., Muyonga J.H., Kaaya A.N. (1999). Quality deterioration in frozen Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) stored at -13 and -27°C. Food Research International, 32(2): 151-156.

Ojagh S.M., Rezaei M., Razavi S.H., Hosseini S.M.H. (2010). Effect of chitosan coatings enriched with cinnamon oil on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chemistry, 120(1): 193-198.

Özogul Y., Özyurt G., Özogul F., Kuley E., Polat A. (2005). Freshness assessment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) by sensory, chemical and microbiological methods. Food Chemistry, 92(4): 745-751.

Pacheco-Aguilar R., Lugo-Sanchez M.E., Robles-Burgueno M.R. (2000). Postmortem biochemical and functional characteristic of Monterey sardine muscle stored at 0°C. Journal of Food Science, 65(1): 40-47.

Parhusip Adolf J.N., Karina N.L., Ambarita M.T.D. (2011). The application of the Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) extract as a natural preservative for the fresh black tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.) during cold storage. Proceeding of the International Conference on Natural Sciences (ICONS). Batu, East Java, Indonesia. pp: 316- 323

Pezeshk S., Rezaei M., Hosseini H. (2010). Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of shallot extract (Allium ascalonicum) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during chilled (4±1°C) storage. Iranian Journal of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, 1(2): 11-19.

Razavi shirazi H. (2001). Sea food technology: Principles of handling and Processing (2). Tehran: Naghshe-Mehr publications. 292 p. (In Persian).

Rostamzad H., Shabanpour B., Kashaninejad M., Shabani A. (2010). Inhibitory impacts of natural antioxidants (ascorbic and citric acid) and vacuum packaging on lipid oxidation in frozen Persian sturgeon fillets. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 9(2): 279-292.

Sakanaka S., Tachibana Y., Okada Y. (2005). Preparation and antioxidant properties of extracts of Japanese persimmon leaf tea (Kakinoha- cha). Food Chemistry, 89(4): 569-75.

Samelis J., Sofos J.N., Kain M.L., Scange J.A., Belk K.E., Smith G.C. (2001). Organic acids and their salts as dipping solutions to control Listeria monocytogenes inoculated following processing of sliced pork bologna stored at 4°C in vacuum packages. Journal of Food Protection, 11: 1722-1729.

Schillinger U., Geisen R., Holzapflel W.H. (1996). Potential of antagonistic microorganisms and bacteriocins for the biological preservation of foods. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 7(5): 158-64.

Tsai T.H., Tsai T.H., Chien Y.C., Lee C.W., Tsai P.J. (2008). In vitro antimicrobial activities against cariogenic streptococci and their antioxidant capacities: A comparative study of green tea versus different herbs. Food Chemistry, 110(4): 859-864.

Venugopal V. (2006). Seafood processing: adding value through quick freezing, retortable packaging and cook- chilling. Taylor and Francis Group press, LLC. New York, USA, 485 p.

Woywoda A.D., Shaw S.J., Ke P.J., Burns B.G. (1986). Recommended laboratory methods for assessment of fish quality. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1448: 73-82.

Yaldaei N., Yari S., Javadi A. (2013). Evaluating the effect of tamarind extract on chemical properties of salmon in cold storage conditions (2±1ºC) in a 15-day period. 1st International-Conference on Novel Food Processing.

Zakipour Rahimabadi E., Divband M. (2012). The Effects of coating and Zataria multiflora boiss essential oil on chemical attributes of silver carp fillet stored at 4ºC. International Food Research Journal, 19(2): 685-690.


  • There are currently no refbacks.