Acute toxicity of Euphorbia turcomanica on Aphanius dispar

Homa Zare, Ahmad Noori, Morteza Yusefzadi, Mahdi Banaee

Abstract

Piscicidal and molluscicidal activities of aqueous extracts of many members of the family Euphorbiaceae are well-known, but the toxicity potential of Euphorbia turcomanica was not yet studied on any aquatic animals. An acute toxicity test was performed by using a four-day static renewal test to determine the LC50 value of dried powder of E. turcomanica for the euryhaline fish, Aphanius dispar. The LC50 values at various exposure periods are 0.177±0.039 g/L for 24 hrs, 0.131±0.030 g/L for 48 hrs, 0.073±0.018 g/L for 72 hrs, and 0.052±0.013 g/L for 96 hrs. The toxicity of dried powder of E. turcomanica exhibits a positive correlation between fish mortality and exposure periods. As this is the first report about toxicity of E. turcomanica on A. dispar, the results could be only compared to that of other Euphorbiaceae as well as other fishes. It is concluded that the toxicity potential of E. turcomanica is comparable and close to that of well-documented Euphorbiaceae. It has been suggested that E. turcomanica products cannot be used directly in fish-inhabiting water reservoirs.

Keywords

Euphorbia turcomanica, Dried powder, Piscicidal, Killifish.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Abdel-Hamid H. (2003). Molluscicidal and in-vitro schistosomicidal activities of the latex and some extracts of some plants belonging to Euphorbiacea. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 33: 947-954.

Abdel‐Fattah M.R. (1987). The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 94: 293-326.

Bani S., Suri K., Suri O., Sharma O. (1997). Analgesic and antipyretic properties of Euphorbia royleana latex. Phytotherapy Research, 11: 597-599.

Clesceri L.S., Greenberg A.E., Eaton A.D. (1998). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater 20th ed. American Public Health Association. Washington DC, 2671 p.

dos Santos A.F., de Azevedo D.P.L., dos Santos Mata R.d.C., de Mendonça D.I.M.D., Sant’Ana A.E.G. (2007). The lethality of Euphorbia conspicua to adults of Biomphalaria glabrata, cercaria of Schistosoma mansoni and larvae of Artemia salina. Bioresource Technology, 98: 135-139.

Ebenso I.E. (2004). Molluscicidal effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts on edible tropical land snails. Pest Management Science, 60: 178-182.

Frodin D.G. (2004). History and concepts of big plant genera. Taxon, 53: 753-776.

Govaerts R., Frodin D.G., Radcliffe-Smith A., Carter S. (2000). World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (with Pandaceae). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1661 p.

Hassan A.A., Mahmoud A.E., Hassan R.A., Huseein E. (2011). Evaluation of Euphorbia aphylla, Ziziphus spina-christi and Enterolobium contortisiliquum as Molluscicidal Agents. Journal of American Science, 7: 511-520.

Horn J.W., van Ee B.W., Morawetz J.J., Riina R., Steinmann V.W., Berry P.E., Wurdack K.J. (2012). Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 63: 305-326.

Kumar S., Malhotra R., Kumar D. (2010). Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4: 58-61.

Marston A., Hostettmann K. (1985). Review article number 6: Plant molluscicides. Phytochemistry, 24: 639-652.

Mozaffarian V. (1996). A Dictionary of Iranian plant names. Farhang Moaser Publishers. Tehran, Iran. (In Farsi)

Neuwinger H.D. (2004). Plants used for poison fishing in tropical Africa. Toxicon, 44: 417-430.

Oliveira-Filho E.C., Geraldino B.R., Coelho D.R., De-Carvalho R.R., Paumgartten F.J. (2010). Comparative toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and synthetic molluscicides to Biomphalaria glabrata embryos. Chemosphere, 81: 218-227.

Oliveira-Filho E.C., Paumgartten F.J. (2000). Toxicity of Euphorbia milii latex and niclosamide to snails and nontarget aquatic species. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 46: 342-350.

Prasad M., Kumar A., Mishra D., Srivastav S.K., Srivastav A.K. (2010). Acute toxicity of Euphorbia royleana boiss (euphorbiaceae) latex on fresh water catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis (siluriformes, heteropneustidae). Acta Toxicológica Argentina, 18: 5-9.

Reidinger J., Russell F. (1976). Organochlorine residues in adults of six southwestern bat species. Journal of Wildlife Management, 40: 677-680.

Sastry K., Siddiqui A. (1983). Metabolic changes in the snake head fish Channa punctatus chronically exposed to endosulfan. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 19: 133-141.

Singh D., Singh A. (2002). Piscicidal effect of some common plants of India commonly used in freshwater bodies against target animals. Chemosphere, 49: 45-49.

Singh D., Singh A. (2005). The toxicity of four native Indian plants: Effect on AChE and acid/alkaline phosphatase level in fish Channa marulius. Chemosphere, 60: 135-140.

Singh K., Singh A., Singh D.K. (1996). Molluscicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 52: 35-40.

Singh S.K., Yadav R.P., Tiwari S., Singh A. (2005). Toxic effect of stem bark and leaf of Euphorbia hirta plant against freshwater vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Chemosphere, 59: 263-270.

Srivastava V., Singh S.K., Rai M., Singh A. (2004). Toxicity of Nerium indicum and Euphorbia royleana lattices against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, 7: 61-64.

Tiwari S., Singh A. (2004). Piscicidal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of Euphorbia royleana stem bark extracts against freshwater common predatory fish Channa punctatus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 18: 47-53.

Tiwari S., Singh A. (2006). Biochemical stress response in freshwater fish Channa punctatus induced by aqueous extracts of Euphorbia tirucalli plant. Chemosphere, 64: 36-42.

Tiwari S., Singh P., Singh A. (2003). Toxicity of Euphorbia tirucalli plant against freshwater target and non-target organisms. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 1423-1429.

Tiwari S., Singh S., Singh A. (2004). Toxicological effect and biochemical alterations induced by different fractions of Euphorbia royleana latex in freshwater harmful vector snail Lymnaea acuminata. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 42: 1220-1225.

Vasas A., Hohmann J. (2014). Euphorbia Diterpenes: isolation, structure, biological activity, and synthesis (2008–2012). Chemical Reviews, 114: 8579-8612.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.