Effects of pre-sampling fasting on serum characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Seyyed Morteza Hoseini, Melika Ghelichpour

Abstract

Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (L.) were blood-sampled after 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h fasting to find serum baseline levels. There was a significant difference in serum glucose, lactate, triglyceride and total protein but not cholesterol, albumin and calcium levels among the treatments. Glucose levels increased with fasting tine and reached to a peak after 6 h. Then, the glucose level decreased to the lowest level after 12 h. Changes of glucose and lactate had reverse trends, as lactate levels decreased with fasting time and reached to the dip point at 6 h and, thereafter, the levels increased to peak point at 12 h.  Serum glucose and lactate levels showed stable values during 24-72 h of fasting, compared with the values measured at 0 h. Triglyceride levels showed an increasing trend parallel to that of the fasting period and reached to a peak point after 6 h. The levels reached 0 h values at 24 h and showed further decrement at 48 and 72h. Total protein showed elevation while fasting progressed and reached the peak point at 6 h and remained stable during 24-48 h fasting; However, it decreased after 72 h fasting. According to the results, cholesterol, calcium and albumin baseline levels were not affected by 0-72 h fasting. Glucose and lactate baseline could be determined after 24-72 h fasting. Total protein baseline could be determined after 24-48 h fasting. Triglyceride levels are significantly affected by fasting period which should be taken into account when it is measured. Possible mechanisms involving in common carp serum fluctuation over 0-72 h fasting period are discussed.

Keywords

Biochemistry, Cyprinus carpio (L.), Fasting, Metabolite, Sampling, Feeding

Full Text:

PDF

References

Andenen D.E., Reid S.D., Moon T.W., Perry S.F. (1991). Metabolic effects associated with chronically elevated cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 48:1811–1817.

Andreasen P. (1985). Free and total calcium concentrations in the blood of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, during ‘stress’ conditions. Journal of Experimental Biology, 118: 111–120.

Bjornsson B.T., Young G., Lin R.J., Deftos L.J., Bern H.A. (1989). Smoltification and seawater adaptation in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch): plasma calcium regulation, osmoregulation, and calcitonin. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 74: 346–354.

Blasco J., Fernandez J., Gutierrez J. (1991). The effects of starvation and refeeding on plasma amino acid levels in carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Journal of fish biology, 38: 587-598.

Blasco J., Fernandez J., Gutierrez J. (1992). Fasting and refeeding in carp, Cyprinus carpio L.: the mobilization of reserves and plasma metabolite and hormone variations. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 162: 539–546.

Bystriansky J.S., Leblanc P.J., Ballantyne J.S. (2006). Anaesthetization of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) with tricaine methanesulphonate or 2-phenoxyethanol for immediate blood sampling. Journal of Fish Biology, 69: 613–621.

Cataldi E., Di Marco P., Mandich A., Cataudella S. (1998). Serum parameters of Adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes) effects of temperature and stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 21: 351–354.

Cho G.K., Heath D.D. (2000). Comparison of tricane metanesuphonate (MS222) and clove oil anaesthesia effects on the physiology of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Aquaculture Research, 31: 537–546.

Congleton J.L., Wagner T. (2006). Blood-chemistry indicators of nutritional status in juvenile salmonids. Journal of fish biology, 69: 73–490.

Créach Y., Serfaty A. (1974). Starvation and refeeding in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Journal of Physiology- Paris, 68: 245-260.

Figueroa R.I., Rodríguez-Sabarís R., Aldegunde M., Soengas J.L. (2000). Effects of food deprivation on 24 h-changes in brain and liver carbohydrate and ketone body metabolism of rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 57: 631–646.

Holloway A.C., Keene J., Noakes D.G., Moccia R.D. (2004). Effects of clove oil and MS-222 on blood hormone profiles in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum. Aquaculture research, 35: 1025–1030.

Hoseini S.M. (2010). Efficacy of clove powder solution on stress mitigation in juvenile common carps, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). Comparative Clinical Pathology, 20: 359-362.

Hoseini S.M., Hosseini S.A. (2010). Effect of dietary L-tryptophan on osmotic stress tolerance in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, juveniles. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36: 1061–1067.

Hoseini S.M., Hosseini S.A., Jafar Nodeh A. (2010). Serum biochemical characteristics of Beluga, Huso huso (L.), in response to blood sampling after clove powder solution exposure. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37: 567-572.

Hyvarinen P., Heinimaa S., Rita H. (2004). Effects of abrupt cold shock on stress responses and recovery in brown trout exhausted by swimming. Journal of Fish Biology, 64: 1015–1026.

Iversen M., Finstad B., McKinley R.S., Eliassen R.A. (2003). The efficacy of metomidate, clove oil, Aqui-STM, and Benzoaks as anaesthetics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts, and their potential stress-reducing capacity. Aquaculture, 221: 549–566.

Navarro I., Gutierrez J. (1995). Fasting and starvation. In: Hochachka PW, Mommsen TP (eds) Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes. Elsevier, New York, pp. 393–434.

Ortuno J., Esteban M.A., Meseguer. J (2002a). Effects of four anesthetics on the innate immune response of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.). Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 12: 49–59.

Ortuno J., Esteban M.A., Meseguer J. (2002b). Effects of phenoxyethanol on the innate immune system of gilthead seabream exposed to crowding stress (Sparus aurata L.). Veterinary Immunology and Immunotherapy, 89: 29–36.

Rios F.S.A, Moraes G., Eliane E.T., Fernandes M.N., Donatti L., Kalinin A.L., Rantin F.T. (2006). Mobilization and recovery of energy stores in traíra, Hoplias malabaricus Bloch (Teleostei, Erythrinidae) during long-term starvation and after re-feeding. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 176: 721–728.

Roubach R., Gomes L.C., Fonseca FA.L, Val AL. (2005). Eugenol as an efficacious anesthetic for tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier). Aquaculture Research, 36: 1056–1061.

Ruane N.M., Huisman E.A., Komen J. (2001). Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement. Journal of Fish Biology, 59: 1–12.

Ruane N.M., Carballo E.C., Komen J. (2002a). Increased stocking density influences the acute physiological stress response of common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.). Aquaculture Research, 33: 777-784.

Ruane N.M., Huisman E.A., Komen J. (2002b). The influence of feeding history on the acute stress response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquaculture, 210: 245–257.

Sala-Rabanal M., Sanchez J., Ibarz A., Fernandez-Borras J., Blasco J., Gallardo M.A. (2003). Effects of low temperatures and fasting on hematology and plasma composition of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish physiology and biochemistry, 29: 105–115.

Schurmann H., Steffensen J.F. (1997). Effects of temperature, hypoxia and activity on the metabolism of juvenile Atlantic cod. Journal of Fish Biology, 50: 1166–1180.

Sheridan M.A., Mommsen T.P. (1991). Effects of nutritional state on in vivo lipid and carbohydrate metabolism of Coho Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 81: 473–483.

Shi X., Zhuang P., Zhang L., Chen L., Xu B., Feng G., Huang X. (2010). Optimal starvation time before blood sampling to get baseline data on several blood biochemical parameters in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Aquaculture Nutrition, 16: 544-548.

Shimeno S., Shikata T., Hosokawa H., Masumoto T., Kheyyali D. (1997). Metabolic response to feeding rates in common carp, Cyprinus carpio Aquaculture, 1: 371-377.

Sudová E., Piačková V., Kroupová H., Pijáček M., Svobodová Z. (2009). The effect of praziquantel applied per os on selected haematological and biochemical indices in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 35: 599–605.

Stillwell E.J., Benfey T.J. (1997). The critical swimming velocity of diploid and triploid brook trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 51: 650–653.

Vijayan M.M., Moon T.W. (1992). Acute handling stress alters hepatic glycogen metabolism in food-deprived rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 49: 2260–2266.

Wagner G.N., McKinley R.S., Bjørn P.A., Finstad B. (2003). Physiological impact of sea lice on swimming performance of Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology, 62: 1000–1009.

Wendelaar Bonga S.E. (1997). The stress response in fish. Physiological reviews, 77: 591–625.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.