Amelioration of cadmium-induced changes in biochemical parameters of the muscle of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) by Vitamin C and Chitosan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of administering antioxidants, including vitamin C and chitosan on oxidative stress markers in muscle as edible tissues of Cyprinus carpio exposed to cadmium chloride. In this experiment, by exposing to 0.2 mg/L cadmium chloride for 21 days, fish were fed a normal diet, diet containing chitosan (1000 mg/kg diet), vitamin C (1000 mg/kg diet) or both vitamin C and chitosan. Oxidative stress markers, including the activity of catalase, total antioxidant and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as biochemical parameters, including the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured. Fish exposure to cadmium chloride significantly increased AST, LDH, CPK, catalase, and MDA activity, while it significantly decreased AST and AChE activity, and levels of total antioxidant in muscle cells. Administration of chitosan or vitamin C alone or in combination with each other to fish exposed to cadmium chloride was effective in regulating ALT, CPK, and catalase activity. Although administration of vitamin C and chitosan caused a significant decrease in MDA, AST and LDH, these enzymes were still significantly higher than those in the control group. Administration of vitamin C and chitosan had no significant effects on the activity of AChE and levels of total antioxidant. Although, chitosan alone could not prevent oxidative stress damages in muscle tissues of cadmium-treated fish, administration of vitamin C combined with chitosan may increase the efficiency of antioxidant defense system and improve the detoxification system in the muscles of fish exposed to cadmium chloride.
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